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spectrometer, quad time, quadrupole-TOF, instrument, instrument, mass spectrometer, mass spectrometer, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system, quadrupole time, quadrupole time, quad time, instrument, quadrupole-TOF, mass spectrometer, mass spectrometer, mass spectrometer, mass spectrometer, mass spectrometer, instrument, spectrometer
This model was found at
1690 locations
The model is used in
60 countries
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About the Waters Xevo QTof

The model Waters Xevo QTof was found in 1690 unique locations in 60 countries where it was mentioned from 2010 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Organic Chemistry, Drug Discovery, Pharmaceutical Science, Biochemistry, and Molecular Medicine. The model is also used in Analytical Chemistry, General Medicine, Molecular Biology, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, General Chemistry, Chemistry, Pharmacology, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Plant Science, Clinical Biochemistry, Toxicology, Food Science, Cell Biology, Genetics, Catalysis, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis, Pharmacology (medical), General Physics and Astronomy, Spectroscopy, Inorganic Chemistry, Biotechnology, Computer Science Applications, Physiology, and Microbiology.
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Research that uses the Waters Xevo QTof

Pourya Shahpoury, Tom Harner, Gerhard Lammel, Steven Lelieveld, Haijie Tong, Jake Wilson, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12, 6529-6539 (12), 2019
Abstract. Oxidative potential is a measure of redox activity of airborne particulate matter (PM) and is often used as a surrogate to estimate one form of PM toxicity. The evaluation of oxidative potential in a physiologically relevant environment is always challenging. In this work, we developed a chromatographic method, employing an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a triple–quadruple mass spectrometer, to determine the oxidative potential of PM from different sources. To this purpose, we measured the PM-induced oxidation of glutathione, cysteine, and ascorbic acid, and formation of glutathione disulfide and cystine, following PM addition to simulated epithelial lining fluids, which, in addition to the antioxidants, contained inorganic salts, a phospholipid, and proteins. The new method showed high precision and, when applied to standard reference PM, the oxidative potential was found to increase with the reaction time and PM concentration in the lung fluid. The antioxidant depletion rates were considerably higher than the rates found with the conventional dithiothreitol assay, indicating the higher sensitivity of the new method. The presence of the lung fluid inorganic species increased the oxidative potential determined through glutathione and cysteine, but showed an opposite effect with ascorbic acid, whereas the presence of proteins resulted in a moderate decrease in the oxidative potential. In the presence of PM2.5, glutathione and cysteine demonstrated similar depletion patterns, which were noticeably different from that of ascorbic acid, suggesting that cysteine could be used as an alternative to glutathione for probing oxidative potential.
Daisy N. Grace, Melissa B. Sebold, Melissa M. Galloway, 2019
Abstract. Atmospheric particles contain thousands of compounds with many different functional groups and a wide range of polarities. Typical separation methods for aqueous atmospheric systems include reverse-phase liquid chromatography or derivatization of the analytes of interest followed by gas chromatography. These methods can be time-consuming and do not easily separate highly polar aqueous molecules. This study uses supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry to separate the methylglyoxal-ammonium sulfate reaction mixture as a proxy for aqueous atmospheric aerosol mimics. Several column compositions, mobile phase modifiers, and column temperatures were examined to determine their effect on separation and the optimum conditions for separation in a minimal amount of time and sample preparation. Polar columns such as the Viridis UPC2 BEH column combined with a mobile phase gradient of carbon dioxide and methanol provided the best separation of compounds in the mixture. This separation method can be extended to analyze other aqueous atmospheric systems, including the mixtures of other aldehydes or organic acids with ammonium or small amines.
Jorge Iván Castillo-Quan, Luke S. Tain, Kerri J. Kinghorn, Li Li, Sebastian Grönke, Yvonne Hinze, T. Keith Blackwell, Ivana Bjedov, Linda Partridge, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116, 20817-20819 (42), 2019
Increasing life expectancy is causing the prevalence of age-related diseases to rise, and there is an urgent need for new strategies to improve health at older ages. Reduced activity of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) nutrient-sensing signaling network can extend lifespan and improve health during aging in diverse organisms. However, the extensive feedback in this network and adverse side effects of inhibition imply that simultaneous targeting of specific effectors in the network may most effectively combat the effects of aging. We show that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor trametinib, the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor rapamycin, and the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor lithium act additively to increase longevity in Drosophila . Remarkably, the triple drug combination increased lifespan by 48%. Furthermore, the combination of lithium with rapamycin cancelled the latter’s effects on lipid metabolism. In conclusion, a polypharmacology approach of combining established, prolongevity drug inhibitors of specific nodes may be the most effective way to target the nutrient-sensing network to improve late-life health.
Huong Thi Mai Nguyen, Der-Yen Lee, Hung-Ming Wu, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020, 1-10, 2020
Auricular acupuncture is used to treat cardiac-related diseases such as hypertension. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of auricular acupuncture on blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The treatment group (TG) received auricular electroacupuncture (EA) at the auricle heart (CO15) and auricle shenmen (TEF3) points. Heart rate (HR) and BP, GABA-A expression, catecholamine, and neurotransmitter levels were measured. The HR was reduced after 7 auricular EA treatments compared with controls (all p < 0.05 ). Systolic BP and diastolic BP also decreased immediately and throughout the treatments compared with controls (all p < 0.05 ). The reduction of BP and HR was reversed by bicuculline injection 30 min before auricular EA treatment (all p < 0.05 ). GABA levels in the adrenal gland were higher with auricular EA treatment compared with the control group at 4 h ( p < 0.05 ). Levels of serum noradrenaline and adrenaline were reduced at 15 min after final auricular EA treatment compared with the normal control group (both p < 0.05 ). The lowering of BP and HR by auricular EA is possibly mediated via vagal afferents from the concha to the nucleus of the solitary tract. After signal integration in the medulla oblongata, it may be transmitted through sympathetic efferent or vagal efferent or through multiple signaling pathways simultaneously to the atrionector of heart and the adrenal medulla. Further study is warranted.
Yunjuan Zhang, Lei Peng, Wenyun Li, Tianyi Dai, Long Nie, Jing Xie, Yu Ai, Lingfei Li, Yang Tian, Jun Sheng, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020, 1-9, 2020
Moringa oleifera Lam. is an essential herb used for the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other diseases. In this study, phenolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves were obtained and analyzed. The results showed that the main identifiable phenols were astragalin, chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, kaempferitrin, luteolin, quercetin, and rutin. The effects of M. oleifera polyphenol extract (MOPE) on experimental colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were investigated. The results showed that oral administration of MOPE significantly alleviated the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis. MOPE significantly reduced weight loss, the disease activity index, colon shortening, and mucosal damage. In addition, MOPE attenuated the infiltration of CD3+ T cells, CD177+ neutrophils, and F4/80+ macrophages and significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α. After the MOPE administration, the expression of proteins associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway changed. Specifically, compared with that of the DSS group, the protein expression of NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα was downregulated, and the expression of IκBα was upregulated. This study revealed the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of MOPE in the colon, indicating its potential use in preventing inflammation-driven diseases.
Marian Elias, Rasha S. Hanafi, Samia El-Bardicy, Ebtisam A. Hafez, Rashika El Ridi, Journal of Parasitology Research, 2020, 1-14, 2020
Only a fraction of the Biomphalaria and Bulinus snail community shows patent infection with schistosomes despite continuous exposure to the parasite, indicating that a substantial proportion of snails may resist infection. Accordingly, exterminating the schistosome intermediate snail hosts in transmission foci in habitats that may extend to kilometres is cost-prohibitive and damaging to the ecological equilibrium and quality of water and may be superfluous. It may be more cost effective with risk less ecological damage to focus on discovering the parameters governing snail susceptibility and resistance to schistosome infection. Therefore, laboratory bred Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus snails were exposed to miracidia of laboratory-maintained Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively. Snails were examined for presence or lack of infection association with soft tissue and hemolymph content of proteins, cholesterol, and triglycerides, evaluated using standard biochemical techniques and palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acid, assayed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Successful schistosome infection of B. alexandrina and B. truncatus consistently and reproducibly correlated with snails showing highly significant (up toP<0.0001) decrease in soft tissue and hemolymph content of the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, and the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, and arachidonic acids as compared to naïve snails. Snails that resisted twice infection had soft tissue content of oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acid similar to naïve counterparts. High levels of soft tissue and hemolymph oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic acid content appear to interfere with schistosome development in snails. Diet manipulation directed to eliciting excessive increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids in snails may protect them from infection and interrupt disease transmission in a simple and effective manner.
Nankun Qin, Yue Jiang, Wenjun Shi, Liting Wang, Lingbo Kong, Chengxiang Wang, Yuying Guo, Jiayu Zhang, Qun Ma, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2021, 1-15, 2021
Hyperuricemia (HUA) as a metabolic disease is closely associated with metabolic disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HUA are not fully understood, so there is no radical cure so far. Metabolomics, a specialized study of endogenous small molecule substances, has become a powerful tool for metabolic pathway analysis of selected differential metabolites, which is helpful for initially revealing possible development mechanisms of various human diseases. Twenty HUA patients and 20 healthy individuals participated in the experiment, and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was employed to investigate serum samples to find differential metabolites. The statistical techniques used were principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The differences in metabolomics results of samples after pretreatment with different solvents were compared, 38, 20, 26, 28, 33, 50, and 40 potential differential metabolites were found, respectively, in HUA patient samples, and each group involved different metabolic pathways. Repetitive metabolites were removed, 138 differential metabolites in HUA serum were integrated for analysis, and the human body was affected by 7 metabolic pathways of glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, and α-linolenic acid metabolism. In this work, the metabolomics approach based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MS was employed to investigate serum metabolic changes in HUA patients, 138 potential differential metabolites related to HUA were identified, which provided associations of lipids, amino acids, fatty acids, organic acids, and nucleosides profiles of HUA individuals. Metabolic pathways involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, and a-linolenic acid metabolism shed light on the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis process of HUA.
Yuqin Zhang, Hongyun Wang, Huang Li, Lihong Nan, Wei Xu, Yu Lin, Kedan Chu, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2021, 1-14, 2021
Pyroptosis is a proinflammatory form of regulated cell death that plays an important role in ischemic stroke. Gualou Guizhi granule (GLGZG) is a classic prescription that has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. In the present study, we examined the involvement of pyroptosis and its associated mechanism in protecting nerve function. Methods. Primary neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) conditions in the presence or absence of GLGZG. Cellular viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. The number of apoptoic cells was detected by NeuN and NSE protein expression. The expression levels of the pyroptosis markers, namely, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and IL-1β were determined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, western blot, and ELISA analyses as appropriate. Moreover, the expression levels of the PI3K/Akt pathway key proteins were determined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis and western blot assays. To determine the PI3K/Akt pathway involvement in GLGZG-mediated neuroprotection, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (LY, 10 μM) was added. The expression levels of NeuN, Akt, and p-Akt were evaluated. Results. It was found that GLGZG could inhibit OGD/R-induced cell apoptosis, increase neuronal cell viability, decrease the production of IL-18 and IL-1β, and downregulate the expression levels of pyroptosis markers (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1). Furthermore, GLGZG could modulate the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K pathway not only abrogated the effects of GLGZG on Akt but also neutralized its prosurvival and antipyroptotic actions. Conclusions. The findings indicated that GLGZG pretreatment effectively reduced OGD/R-induced injury by inhibiting cell pyroptosis and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. These data provide important evidence for the therapeutic applications of this regimen in ischemic stroke.
Molly Mombeshora, Godloves Fru Chi, Stanley Mukanganyama, Biochemistry Research International, 2021, 1-13, 2021
Triumfetta welwitschii has been used as a traditional medicine in Africa. It is documented as a rich source of phytochemicals with antibacterial activities. To further explore the antibacterial potential of these phytochemical components, the phytochemical profile of the dichloromethane: methanol leaf extract from T. welwitschii was investigated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Compounds were isolated from the extract using column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Compound B1 was isolated from the fraction eluted by 90 hexane:10 ethyl acetate using column chromatography. The antibacterial activity of B1 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated in vitro using the broth microdilution method and the iodonitrotetrazolium (INT) colorimetric assay. The antibiofilm activities of the extract and B1 against P. aeruginosa were determined by quantifying the biofilms using crystal violet. The effect of the extract and B1 on capsular polysaccharide and extracellular DNA content of biofilm formed by P. aeruginosa was determined using phenol-sulphuric acid and propidium iodide, respectively. A total of 28 peaks were detected and identified using UPLC-MS/MS. The three most abundant phytochemicals identified were catechin, umbelliferone, and a luteolin derivative. B1 showed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of 25 μg/ml. Only 38% and 6% of the biofilms were formed in the presence of the extract and B1, respectively. The extract and B1 reduced the capsular polysaccharide content in biofilms formed in P. aeruginosa by 40% and 65%, respectively. The extract and B1 significantly reduced the extracellular DNA content of biofilms by 29% and 72%, respectively. The results of this study provide evidence of the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of B1 and leaf extracts from T. welwitschii. Future work should identify the chemical structure of B1 using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry.
Chunyan Zhang, Drun Dha, Yuxuan Cheng, Ya Ma, Yan Meng, Drun Tse, Dolma Ngawang, Pedrun Dekyi, Tao Jiang, Yang Shu, Jiayi Cui, Jing Li, Yaping Tian, 2019
Abstract Background: The purpose of the study was to establish reference values of amino acids and acylcarnitines in newborns of the Tibet Autonomous Region for the first time and to provide an experimental basis for the diagnosis of genetic metabolic diseases.Methods: We detected concentrations of 43 kinds of amino acids, acylcarnitines and succinylacetone in the dried blood spots of 15029 newborns using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We compared the indexes between Tibet and our lab, where most data come from an inland area and Han Chinese people. Then we compared amino acid and acylcarnitine levels of seven regions in Tibet and explored their impact factors. The distribution of amino acid and acylcarnitines were different in Tibet.Results: Reference intervals of amino acids and acyl carnitines in neonates from the Tibet Autonomous Region were defined according to the (P 0.5% ~ P 99.5%) of the values. Given the third reference range, the recall rate of statistical screening was significantly reduced to 2.16%.Conclusions: This study has contributed to the field by determining the actual values of amino acids and acylcarnitines in newborns from the Tibet Autonomous Region, which could be used as reference for a newborn metabolic screening project in this area.
Jian-Ming Li, Ying Li, Zheng-Yi Luo, Yu-Ying Hu, Yue-Wei Bi, Jian-Ming Yang, Wen-Jun Zou, Yun-Long Song, Shi Li, Tong Shen, Shu-Ji Li, Lang Huang, Ai-Jun Zhou, Tian-Ming Gao, 2020
Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder with limited effective pharmacological treatments for the core autistic symptoms so far. Increasing evidences, especially the clinical studies in ASD patients, suggest a functional link between gut microbiota and development of ASD. However, the mechanisms linking gut microbiota and brain dysfunctions (gut-brain axis) in ASD are still not well-established. With genetic mutations and down-regulated expression in patients with ASD, EPHB6 , which is also important in homeostasis of gut, has been generally considered to be a candidate gene for ASD. Nonetheless, the role and mechanism of EPHB6 involved in regulating gut microbiota and development of ASD have been unclear. Results Here, we found deletion of EphB6 induced autism-like behavior and disturbed gut microbiota in mice. More importantly, transplanting fecal microbiota from EphB6-deficient mice resulted in autism-like behavior in antibiotics-treated C57BL/6J mice. Meanwhile, transplanting fecal microbiota from wild-type mice ameliorated autism-like behavior in EphB6-deficient mice. At the metabolic levels, disturbed gut microbiota led to vitamin B6 and dopamine defects in EphB6-deficient mice. At the cellular levels, excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in medial prefrontal cortex was induced by gut microbiota-mediated defects of vitamin B6 metabolism in EphB6-deficient mice. Conclusions Our study uncovers a key role for gut microbiota in regulation of autism-like social behavior by mediating vitamin B6 metabolism, dopamine synthesis and E/I balance in EphB6-deficient mice, suggesting new strategies for understanding and treatment of ASD.
Hanlu Fan, Haiwen Li, Huijiao Liu, Peng Li, Xiaomeng Jia, Peilan Guo, Qingquan Yu, Xiru Li, Yangdong Guo, Xiangdong Li, 2020
Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common type of metabolic disorder involving multiple organ systems. Grape has been reported to improve the symptoms of T2DM, the precise mechanism of its action is unclear. Our study was aimed to determine the effect and mechanism of grape pomace extract in T2DM mice induced by high fat diet (HFD). Materials and methods Ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to identify the main active compounds in grape pomace extract to improve T2DM. C57BLK/6J mice induced by HFD supplemented with or without quercetin were used to show the effects of quercetin improving T2DM. By online database research, bioinformatics analysis and molecular biology experiments, Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-lncSHGL (lncRNA suppressor of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis) pathway was identify as the target for quercetin. Results Quercetin was identified as one of the most active compounds in grape pomace extract to improve T2DM. Quercetin could inhibit HFD-induced T2DM in mice by activing ERα. LncSHGL was identified as the downstream of ERα and inhibited HFD-induced T2DM. Conclusions Quercetin could be beneficial for T2DM by promoting lncSHGL transcription and activating the lncSHGL pathway, and may be used as a drug component to treat T2DM.
Sureerat Padthaisong, Jutarop Phetcharaburanin, Poramate Klanrit, Jia V. Li, Nisana Namwat, Narong Khuntikeo, Attapol Titapun, Apiwat Jarearnrat, Arporn Wangwiwatsin, Panupong Mahalapbutr, Watcharin Loilome, 2020
Abstract Background: Cholangiocarcioma (CCA) is a major health problem for people in Thailand. The treatment is challenging because most of patients are diagnosed when the disease is advanced, and cancer recurrence is the main problem after treatment, leading to low survival rates. Therefore, our understanding of the mechanism underlying CCA recurrence is essential in order to prevent CCA recurrence and improve patient outcome. Methods: We performed 1H-NMR and UPLC-MS based-metabolomics on CCA serum. The differential metabolites were further analyzed using pathway analysis and potential biomarkers identification.Results: At an early stage, CCA patients with recurrence have a different metabolic profile compared with non-recurrence patients. In recurrence patients, the metabolites involved in energy metabolism, such as pyruvate metabolism and the TCA cycle, are down-regulated, while most lipids, including TGs, PCs, PEs and Pas, are up-regulated. This metabolic feature has been described in cancer stem-like cell (CSC) metabolism. Based on this, the correlation of putative CSC markers and proteins involved in identified pathways, together with recurrence-free survival was explored. The results revealed that the expression levels of the CSC markers CD44v6 and CD44v8-10 are associated with CD36 (a protein involved in lipid uptake) as well as with recurrence-free survival. Potential metabolic biomarkers were identified using ROC and Kaplan-Meier analyses. We found that citrate, sarcosine, succinate, creatine, creatinine and pyruvate and TGs have good predictive values for CCA recurrence and are associated with recurrence-free survival. Conclusions: These findings reveal an alteration of the metabolic profile associated with recurrence. These metabolic changes may be associated with the existence of CSCs that lead to CCA recurrence. Moreover, the alteration of metabolites was shown to provide suitable biomarkers for CCA recurrence. Therefore, the differential metabolites between patients with and without recurrence can be used as biomarkers for CCA recurrence.
Wenjun Shi, Fei Yang, Liting Wang, Nankun Qin, Chengxiang Wang, Guang Xu, Yuying Guo, Xue Yu, Qun Ma, 2020
Abstract BackgroundPlantaginis semen has been widely used as folk medicine and health care food against hyperuricemia (HUA) and gout, but little was known about its pharmacological mechanism. MethodsThe model was established by potassium oxonate intragastric administration. 42 Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into the control group, model group, benzbromarone group (10 mg/kg) and three Plantaginis semen groups (n = 7). The Plantaginis semen groups were treated orally with Plantaginis semen at 0.9375, 1.875 and 3.75 g/kg for 28 days. The levels of serum uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr), triacylglycerol (TG) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was used as the basis for serum lipidomics analysis, and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was carried out for the pattern recognition and characteristic metabolites identification. The relative levels of critical regulatory factors of urate anion transporter 1(URAT1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ protein kinases B (PI3K/Akt) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). ResultsCompared with the model group, the levels of serum UA, Cr, and TG were significantly (p<0.01) decreased in benzbromarone and three Plantaginis semen groups and the level of serum TNF-α was significantly (p<0.05) decreased in benzbromarone and low dose of Plantaginis semen group. With lipidomics analysis, significant lipid metabolic perturbations were observed in HUA rats, 13 metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers and glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway was mostly affected. These perturbations can be partially restored via treatment of benzbromarone and Plantaginis semen. Additionally, the URAT1 and PI3K/Akt mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05) after treatment with benzbromarone and high dose of Plantaginis semen. ConclusionsPlantaginis semen had significant anti-HUA, anti-inflammatory and renal protection effects and could attenuate potassium oxonate-induced HUA through regulation of lipid metabolism disorder. Trial registrationNot applicable
Yuh Tzean, Bo-Han Hou, Shu-Ming Tsao, Ho-Ming Chen, An-Po Cheng, Elena Gamboa Chen, Wei-Yi Chou, Chih-Ping Chao, Wei-Chiang Shen, Hsin-Hung Yeh, 2020
Abstract Background: Banana, an important cash and staple crop worldwide, suffers from various biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens. In plants’ defense against these pathogens, the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in the regulation of immune response. Using a specific set of SA-responsive genes as markers is frequently adopted to monitor the onset of SA-mediated immune response. However, reliable SA-responsive genes marker genes have not been well established in bananas. Results: From the transcriptome analysis of SA-treated ‘Pei-Chiao’ banana roots, we identified 19 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes. Four of the up-regulated genes previously reported to play crucial roles in SA-mediated immunity in other species were further analyzed for their applicability in different tissues and cultivars of bananas using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. The analysis showed that WRKY40, WRKY70, and Downy Mildew Resistant 6 (DMR6)-Like Oxygenase 1 (DLO1) were significantly induced upon SA treatment in both the leaves and roots of ‘Pei-Chiao’ (AAA genome), ‘Pisang Awak’ (ABB genome), and ‘Lady Finger’ (AA genome) bananas.Conclusions: The uncovering of common marker genes WRKY40, WRKY70, and DLO1 for SA response in different banana genome types provides the stepping stone for studies towards understanding of SA-mediated immune response in bananas.
Piotr Biniarz, Marius Henkel, Rudolf Hausmann, Marcin Łukaszewicz, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8, 2020
Microbial surfactants (biosurfactants) have gained interest as promising substitutes of synthetic surface-active compounds. However, their production and purification are still challenging, with significant room for efficiency and costs optimization. In this work, we introduce a method for the enhanced production and purification of cyclic lipopeptides pseudofactins (PFs) from Pseudomonas fluorescens BD5 cultures. The method is directly applicable in a technical scale with the possibility of further upscaling. Comparing to the original protocol for production of PFs (cultures in mineral salt medium in shaken flasks followed by solvent-solvent extraction of PFs), our process offers not only ∼24-fold increased productivity, but also easier and more efficient purification. The new process combines high yield of PFs (∼7.2 grams of PFs per 30 L of working volume), with recovery levels of 80–90% and purity of raw PFs up to 60–70%. These were achieved with an innovative, single-step thermal co-precipitation and extraction of PFs directly from collected foam, as a large amount of PF-enriched foam was produced during the bioprocess. Besides we present a protocol for the selective production of PF structural analogs and their separation with high-performance liquid chromatography. Our approach can be potentially utilized in the efficient production and purification of other lipopeptides of Pseudomonas and Bacillus origin.
Xuanxuan Bai, Jianxin Jia, Qi Kang, Yadong Fu, You Zhou, Yingbin Zhong, Chao Zhang, Mingyu Li, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8, 2021
The glucagon receptor (GCGR) is activated by glucagon and is essential for glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism of animals. GCGR blockade has been demonstrated to induce hypoglycemia, hyperaminoacidemia, hyperglucagonemia, decreased adiposity, hepatosteatosis, and pancreatic α cells hyperplasia in organisms. However, the mechanism of how GCGR regulates these physiological functions is not yet very clear. In our previous study, we revealed that GCGR regulated metabolic network at transcriptional level by RNA-seq using GCGR mutant zebrafish (gcgr−/−). Here, we further performed whole-organism metabolomics and lipidomics profiling on wild-type and gcgr−/− zebrafish to study the changes of metabolites. We found 107 significantly different metabolites from metabolomics analysis and 87 significantly different lipids from lipidomics analysis. Chemical substance classification and pathway analysis integrated with transcriptomics data both revealed that amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism were remodeled in gcgr-deficient zebrafish. Similar to other studies, our study showed that gcgr−/− zebrafish exhibited decreased ureagenesis and impaired cholesterol metabolism. More interestingly, we found that the glycerophospholipid metabolism was disrupted, the arachidonic acid metabolism was up-regulated, and the tryptophan metabolism pathway was down-regulated in gcgr−/− zebrafish. Based on the omics data, we further validated our findings by revealing that gcgr−/− zebrafish exhibited dampened melatonin diel rhythmicity and increased locomotor activity. These global omics data provide us a better understanding about the role of GCGR in regulating metabolic network and new insight into GCGR physiological functions.
Gabriela A. Fernández, Eliana F. Castro, Rocío A. Rosas, Daniela M. Fidalgo, Natalia S. Adler, Leandro Battini, Maria J. España de Marco, Matias Fabiani, Ana M. Bruno, Mariela Bollini, Lucia V. Cavallaro, Frontiers in Chemistry, 8, 2020
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the Pestivirus genus (Flaviviridae). In spite of the availability of vaccines, the virus is still causing substantial financial losses to the livestock industry. In this context, the use of antiviral agents could be an alternative strategy to control and reduce viral infections. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is essential for the replication of the viral genome and constitutes an attractive target for the identification of antiviral compounds. In a previous work, we have identified potential molecules that dock into an allosteric binding pocket of BVDV RdRp via a structure-based virtual screening approach. One of them, N-(2-morpholinoethyl)-2-phenylquinazolin-4-amine [1, 50% effective concentration (EC50) = 9.7 ± 0.5 μM], was selected to perform different chemical modifications. Among 24 derivatives synthesized, eight of them showed considerable antiviral activity. Molecular modeling of the most active compounds showed that they bind to a pocket located in the fingers and thumb domains in BVDV RdRp, which is different from that identified for other non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) such as thiosemicarbazone (TSC). We selected compound 2-[4-(2-phenylquinazolin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]ethanol (1.9; EC50 = 1.7 ± 0.4 μM) for further analysis. Compound 1.9 was found to inhibit the in vitro replication of TSC-resistant BVDV variants, which carry the N264D mutation in the RdRp. In addition, 1.9 presented adequate solubility in different media and a high-stability profile in murine and bovine plasma.
Tyler J. Jaynes, Mona Sharafi, Joseph P. Campbell, Jessica Bocanegra, Kyle T. McKay, Kassondra Little, Reilly Osadchey Brown, Danielle L. Gray, Toby J. Woods, Jianing Li, Severin T. Schneebeli, Frontiers in Chemistry, 9, 2021
This work presents the first transition metal-free synthesis of oxygen-linked aromatic polymers by integrating iterative exponential polymer growth (IEG) with nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reactions. Our approach applies methyl sulfones as the leaving groups, which eliminate the need for a transition metal catalyst, while also providing flexibility in functionality and configuration of the building blocks used. As indicated by 1) 1H-1H NOESY NMR spectroscopy, 2) single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and 3) density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the unimolecular polymers obtained are folded by nonclassical hydrogen bonds formed between the oxygens of the electron-rich aromatic rings and the positively polarized C–H bonds of the electron-poor pyrimidine functions. Our results not only introduce a transition metal-free synthetic methodology to access precision polymers but also demonstrate how interactions between relatively small, neutral aromatic units in the polymers can be utilized as new supramolecular interaction pairs to control the folding of precision macromolecules.
Alexander Carreño, Manuel Gacitúa, Eduardo Solis-Céspedes, Dayán Páez-Hernández, Wesley B. Swords, Gerald J. Meyer, Marcelo D. Preite, Ivonne Chávez, Andrés Vega, Juan A. Fuentes, Frontiers in Chemistry, 9, 2021
Sodium-dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) can be used to separate proteins based mainly on their size such as in denaturing gels. Different staining methods have been reported to observe proteins in the gel matrix, where the most used dyes are generally anionic. Anionic dyes allow for interactions with protonated amino acids, retaining the dye in the proteins. Fluorescent staining is an alternative technique considered to be sensitive, safe, and versatile. Some anionic complexes based on d6 transition metals have been used for this purpose, where cationic dyes have been less explored in this context. In this work, we synthesized and characterized a new monocationic rhenium complex fac-[Re(CO)3(deeb)B2]+ (where deeb is 4,4′-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-2,2′-bpy and B2 is 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(3H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-2-yl)phenol). We carried out a structural characterization of this complex by MS+, FTIR, 1H NMR, D2O exchange, and HHCOSY. Moreover, we carried out UV-Vis, luminescence, and cyclic voltammetry experiments to understand the effect of ligands on the complex’s electronic structure. We also performed relativistic theoretical calculations using the B3LYP/TZ2P level of theory and R-TDDFT within a dielectric continuum model (COSMO) to better understand electronic transitions and optical properties. We finally assessed the potential of fac-[Re(CO)3(deeb)B2]+ (as well as the precursor fac-Re(CO)3(deeb)Br and the free ligand B2) to stain proteins separated by SDS-PAGE. We found that only fac-[Re(CO)3(deeb)B2]+ proved viable to be directly used as a luminescent dye for proteins, presumably due to its interaction with negatively charged residues in proteins and by weak interactions provided by B2. In addition, fac-[Re(CO)3(deeb)B2]+ seems to interact preferentially with proteins and not with the gel matrix despite the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In future applications, these alternative cationic complexes might be used alone or in combination with more traditional anionic compounds to generate counterion dye stains to improve the process.
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