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mobile eye tracker, intelligent eye tracker, device, glasses
This model was found at
264 locations
The model is used in
37 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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107 related research fields
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About the Tobii Pro

The model Tobii Pro was found in 264 unique locations in 37 countries where it was mentioned from 2005 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Developmental and Educational Psychology, General Psychology, Experimental and Cognitive Psychology, Arts and Humanities, and General Medicine. The model is also used in Education, Sensory Systems, Psychology, Ophthalmology, General Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Mental health, Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health, Cognitive Neuroscience, Linguistics and Language, Language and Linguistics, Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation, Neurology, Instrumentation, Clinical Psychology, Human Factors and Ergonomics, Human-Computer Interaction, Biochemistry, Neurology (clinical), Analytical Chemistry, Behavioral Neuroscience, Computer Science Applications, and Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics.
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Research that uses the Tobii Pro

Kengda Huang, Wujie Zhou, Meixin Fang, Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2021, 1-10, 2021
In recent years, the prediction of salient regions in RGB-D images has become a focus of research. Compared to its RGB counterpart, the saliency prediction of RGB-D images is more challenging. In this study, we propose a novel deep multimodal fusion autoencoder for the saliency prediction of RGB-D images. The core trainable autoencoder of the RGB-D saliency prediction model employs two raw modalities (RGB and depth/disparity information) as inputs and their corresponding eye-fixation attributes as labels. The autoencoder comprises four main networks: color channel network, disparity channel network, feature concatenated network, and feature learning network. The autoencoder can mine the complex relationship and make the utmost of the complementary characteristics between both color and disparity cues. Finally, the saliency map is predicted via a feature combination subnetwork, which combines the deep features extracted from a prior learning and convolutional feature learning subnetworks. We compare the proposed autoencoder with other saliency prediction models on two publicly available benchmark datasets. The results demonstrate that the proposed autoencoder outperforms these models by a significant margin.
Qiang Hua, Lisheng Jin, Yuying Jiang, Ming Gao, Baicang Guo, Advances in Civil Engineering, 2021, 1-16, 2021
Distracted driving has become a growing traffic safety concern. With advances in autonomous driving and connected vehicle technology, a mixture of various types of intelligent vehicles will become normal in the near future, while more factors that may cause driver cognitive distraction are emerging. However, there are rarely studies on distracted driving in mixed traffic environments. To fill this gap, we conducted a natural driving experiment with three representative events at a nonsignalized intersection in a mixed traffic environment and proposed a novel method of identifying cognitive distraction based on bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) with attention mechanism. Forty participants were recruited for each event, who completed three different cognitive distraction experiments induced by three different secondary tasks in contrast with a normal driving process when passing a nonsignalized intersection. Related driving performance and eye movement data were collected to train and test the Bi-LSTM with attention mechanism model. Compared with the support vector machine (SVM) model, its recognition accuracy rate is 94.33%, which is 3.83% higher than that of the SVM in the total event, which has reasonable applicability for distraction recognition in a mixed traffic environment. Potential applications of this model include distraction alarm and autonomous driving assistance systems, which could avoid road traffic accidents.
Melike Kahya, Kelly E. Lyons, Rajesh Pahwa, Abiodun E. Akinwuntan, Jianghua He, Hannes Devos, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 9, 2021
Background: Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) may need to spend more mental and physical effort (i.e., cognitive workload) to maintain postural control. Pupillary response reflects cognitive workload during postural control tasks in healthy controls but has not been investigated as a measure of postural demand in PD.Objectives: To compare pupillary response during increased postural demand using vision occlusion and dual tasking between individuals with PD and healthy controls.Methods: Thirty-three individuals with PD and thirty-five healthy controls were recruited. The four conditions lasted 60 s and involved single balance task with eyes open; single balance task with eyes occluded; dual task with eyes open; dual task with eyes occluded. The dual task comprised the Auditory Stroop test. Pupillary response was recorded using an eye tracker. The balance was assessed by using a force plate. Two-way Repeated Measures ANOVA and LSD post-hoc tests were employed to compare pupillary response and Center of Pressure (CoP) displacement across the four conditions and between individuals with PD and healthy controls.Results: Pupillary response was higher in individuals with PD compared to healthy controls (p = 0.009) and increased with more challenging postural conditions in both groups (p < 0.001). The post-hoc analysis demonstrated increased pupillary response in the single balance eyes occluded (p < 0.001), dual task eyes open (p = 0.01), and dual task eyes occluded (p < 0.001) conditions compared to single task eyes open condition.Conclusion: Overall, the PD group had increased pupillary response with increased postural demand compared to the healthy controls. In the future, pupillary response can be a potential tool to understand the neurophysiological underpinnings of falls risk in the PD population.
Marijn Gijsen, Tine van Daal, Marije Lesterhuis, David Gijbels, Sven De Maeyer, Frontiers in Education, 5, 2021
Comparative judgment (CJ) has been recently introduced in the educational field as a means of assessing competences. In this judgement process, assessors are presented with two pieces of student work and are asked to choose which one is better in relation to the competencies being assessed. However, since student work is heterogeneous and highly information loaded, it raises the question as to whether this type of assessment is too complex for assessors to use. Previous research on the topic has operationalized experienced complexity by employing self-report measures, which have been criticized for common problems associated with their use. In our study, we used eye tracking to study 23 high school teachers when they made 10 comparative judgments, and their pupil diameter was used as an indicator of the experienced complexity. This study builds on previous research that integrated Campbell’s theory on task complexity (1988) into CJ. Based on this framework, three hypotheses regarding the role of decision accuracy were formulated and empirically tested. Hypothesis one assumes that the distance between two pieces of student work on the rank-order (rank-order distance) is negatively related to experienced complexity, irrespective of decision accuracy. Hypothesis two assumes that decision accuracy moderates the relationship between rank-order distance and experienced complexity. Hypothesis three builds on hypothesis two by adding a negative relationship between experience and experienced complexity. In all three hypotheses, the average experienced complexity is assumed to vary between assessors, as is the strength of the expected relationships. An information-theoretic approach was used to test the holding of all three hypotheses. All hypotheses were translated into statistical models, and their relative and absolute fit were assessed. Results provided strong evidence for hypothesis three: both the moderating role of decision accuracy on the relationship between rank-order distance and experienced complexity, and the relationship between experience and experienced complexity, were confirmed.
Tenzing C. Dolmans, Mannes Poel, Jan-Willem J. R. van ’t Klooster, Bernard P. Veldkamp, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, 2021
A lot of research has been done on the detection of mental workload (MWL) using various bio-signals. Recently, deep learning has allowed for novel methods and results. A plethora of measurement modalities have proven to be valuable in this task, yet studies currently often only use a single modality to classify MWL. The goal of this research was to classify perceived mental workload (PMWL) using a deep neural network (DNN) that flexibly makes use of multiple modalities, in order to allow for feature sharing between modalities. To achieve this goal, an experiment was conducted in which MWL was simulated with the help of verbal logic puzzles. The puzzles came in five levels of difficulty and were presented in a random order. Participants had 1 h to solve as many puzzles as they could. Between puzzles, they gave a difficulty rating between 1 and 7, seven being the highest difficulty. Galvanic skin response, photoplethysmograms, functional near-infrared spectrograms and eye movements were collected simultaneously using LabStreamingLayer (LSL). Marker information from the puzzles was also streamed on LSL. We designed and evaluated a novel intermediate fusion multimodal DNN for the classification of PMWL using the aforementioned four modalities. Two main criteria that guided the design and implementation of our DNN are modularity and generalisability. We were able to classify PMWL within-level accurate (0.985 levels) on a seven-level workload scale using the aforementioned modalities. The model architecture allows for easy addition and removal of modalities without major structural implications because of the modular nature of the design. Furthermore, we showed that our neural network performed better when using multiple modalities, as opposed to a single modality. The dataset and code used in this paper are openly available.
Francesco Di Gruttola, Andrea P. Malizia, Sonia D'Arcangelo, Nicola Lattanzi, Emiliano Ricciardi, Maria Donata Orfei, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14, 2021
The frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) is a neurophysiological measure of motivation and preference. Despite the FAA is associated to commercial pleasantness, conflicting evidence emerged in the literature regarding its relationship with behavior. To study the association between FAA and consumers' decision, we manipulated a commercial script to elicit diverse consumers' attitudes and decisions and to evaluate whether the FAA score is associated to their final investment. A little informative script (S1) was used to polarize consumers' attitudes and investments toward unfavorable scores, while a more personalized message (S2) to elicit in customers a favorable attitude and higher investments. Twenty-one participants listened to the scripts, and their FAA, attitude, and monetary investment were measured. In S1, the FAA did not correlate with neither attitude nor the investment decision, while a robust negative correlation between these variables was found in S2. No other peripheral body and neural measures associated with attitude or final decision. Our data suggest that the FAA correlates with attitude and decision, when a commercial script is customized and provides an adequate information, likely leading the consumer to a more reasoned and planned decision-making process. When facilitating a favorable attitude toward an offer, the negative correlation of FAA and behavior may reflect the involvement of a control system, whose role is to monitor and govern possible conflicts between approach and avoidance motivations. This observation provides additional indication on the value of FAA as a marker of consumer behaviors, and how it could be affected by experimental and contextual bias.
Babak Zandi, Moritz Lode, Alexander Herzog, Georgios Sakas, Tran Quoc Khanh, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 15, 2021
The human pupil behavior has gained increased attention due to the discovery of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells and the afferent pupil control path’s role as a biomarker for cognitive processes. Diameter changes in the range of 10–2 mm are of interest, requiring reliable and characterized measurement equipment to accurately detect neurocognitive effects on the pupil. Mostly commercial solutions are used as measurement devices in pupillometry which is associated with high investments. Moreover, commercial systems rely on closed software, restricting conclusions about the used pupil-tracking algorithms. Here, we developed an open-source pupillometry platform consisting of hardware and software competitive with high-end commercial stereo eye-tracking systems. Our goal was to make a professional remote pupil measurement pipeline for laboratory conditions accessible for everyone. This work’s core outcome is an integrated cross-platform (macOS, Windows and Linux) pupillometry software called PupilEXT, featuring a user-friendly graphical interface covering the relevant requirements of professional pupil response research. We offer a selection of six state-of-the-art open-source pupil detection algorithms (Starburst, Swirski, ExCuSe, ElSe, PuRe and PuReST) to perform the pupil measurement. A developed 120-fps pupillometry demo system was able to achieve a calibration accuracy of 0.003 mm and an averaged temporal pupil measurement detection accuracy of 0.0059 mm in stereo mode. The PupilEXT software has extended features in pupil detection, measurement validation, image acquisition, data acquisition, offline pupil measurement, camera calibration, stereo vision, data visualization and system independence, all combined in a single open-source interface, available at
Sou Nobukawa, Aya Shirama, Tetsuya Takahashi, Toshinobu Takeda, Haruhisa Ohta, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Akira Iwanami, Nobumasa Kato, Shigenobu Toda, Frontiers in Physiology, 12, 2021
In addition to photic reflex function, the temporal behavior of the pupil diameter reflects levels of arousal and attention and thus internal cognitive neural activity. Recent studies have reported that these behaviors are characterized by baseline activity, temporal complexity, and symmetricity (i.e., degree of symmetry) between the right and left pupil diameters. We hypothesized that experimental analysis to reveal relationships among these characteristics and model-based analysis focusing on the newly discovered contralateral projection from the locus coeruleus (LC) to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN) within the neural system for controlling pupil diameter could contribute to another dimension of understanding of complex pupil dynamics. In this study, we aimed to validate our hypothesis by analyzing the pupillary hippus in the healthy resting state in terms of sample entropy (SampEn), to capture complexity, and transfer entropy (TranEn), to capture symmetricity. We also constructed a neural model embedded with the new findings on neural pathways. The following results were observed: first, according to surrogate data analysis, the complexity and symmetricity of pupil diameter changes reflect a non-linear deterministic process. Second, both the complexity and the symmetricity are unimodal, peaking at intermediate pupil diameters. Third, according to simulation results, the neural network that controls pupil diameter has an inverted U-shaped profile of complexity and symmetricity vs. baseline LC activity; this tendency is enhanced by the contralateral synaptic projections from the LCs to the EWNs. Thus, we characterized the typical relationships between the baseline activity and the complexity and symmetricity of the pupillometric data in terms of SampEn and TranEn. Our evaluation method and findings may facilitate the development of estimation and diagnostic tools for exploring states of the healthy brain and psychiatric disorders based on measurements of pupil diameter.
P. Archana Hebbar, Kausik Bhattacharya, Gowdham Prabhakar, Abhay A. Pashilkar, Pradipta Biswas, Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 2021
This paper discusses the utilization of pilots' physiological indications such as electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, ocular parameters, and pilot performance-based quantitative metrics to estimate cognitive workload. The study aims to derive a non-invasive technique to estimate pilot's cognitive workload and study their correlation with standard physiological parameters. Initially, we conducted a set of user trials using well-established psychometric tests for evaluating the effectiveness of pupil and gaze-based ocular metrics for estimating cognitive workload at different levels of task difficulty and lighting conditions. Later, we conducted user trials with the NALSim flight simulator using a business class Learjet aircraft model. We analyzed participants' ocular parameters, power levels of different EEG frequency bands, and flight parameters for estimating variations in cognitive workload. Results indicate that introduction of secondary task increases pilot's cognitive workload significantly. The beta frequency band of EEG, nearest neighborhood index specifying distribution of gaze fixation, L1 Norm of power spectral density of pupil diameter, and the duty cycle metric indicated variations in cognitive workload.
Luan Tuyen Chau, Mila Dimitrova Vulchanova, Joel B. Talcott, Brain Sciences, 11, 866 (7), 2021
This study examined the well-established relationship between rapid naming and reading. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has long been demonstrated as a strong predictor of reading abilities. Despite extensive research spanning over 4 decades, the underlying mechanisms of these causes remain a subject of inquiry. The current study investigated the role of eye movements and semantic processing in defining the RAN-reading relationship. The participants in this study were 42 English-speaking undergraduate students at a British university. The materials included a word reading task, two conventional RAN tasks (object and digit), and two RAN-like categorization tasks (object and digit). The results obtained suggested the interdependence between rapid naming and semantic processing. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that oculomotor control remains an integral part of variability in RAN and reading performance. Taken together, our results suggest that RAN and reading measures are correlated because both require rapid and accurate retrieval of phonological representations, semantic properties of visual stimuli, and stable co-ordination of eye movements.
Claire Nicole Prendergast, Brain Sciences, 9, 227 (9), 2019
In a series of eye-tracking studies, we investigated preverbal infants’ understanding of social exclusion by analyzing their gaze behaviors as they were familiarized with animations depicting social acceptance and explicit or implicit social exclusion. In addition, we implemented preferential reaching and anticipatory looking paradigms to further assess understanding of outcomes. Across all experiments (n = 81), it was found that 7–9 month-old infants exhibited non-random visual scanning and gaze behaviors and responded systematically and above random chance in their choice of character and, to some extent, in their anticipation of the movement of a neutral character during a test trial. Together, the results suggest that not only do preverbal infants follow and understand third party social events, such as acceptance and exclusion, but that they also update their representations of particular characters as events unfold and evaluate characters on the basis of their actions, as well as the consequences of those actions.
Anouschka Foltz, Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 2021
Native language listeners engage in predictive processing in many processing situations and adapt their predictive processing to the statistics of the input. In contrast, second language listeners engage in predictive processing in fewer processing situations. The current study uses eye-tracking data from two experiments in bilinguals’ native language (L1) and second language (L2) to explore their predictive processing based on contrastive pitch accent cues, and their adaptation in the face of prediction errors. The results of the first experiment show inhibition effects for unpredicted referents in both the L1 and the L2 that can be modeled with a Bayesian adaptation model, suggesting that bilinguals adapt their prediction in the face of prediction errors in a way that is compatible with the model. In contrast, the results of the second experiment, after a training phase that increased the predictive validity of the cue, show inhibition effects for unpredicted referents only in the L1, but not in the L2. In addition, the Bayesian adaptation model significantly predicts only the L1, but not the L2 data. The results are discussed with respect to adaptation to the statistical properties of the input.
Aurélie Bochet, Martina Franchini, Nada Kojovic, Bronwyn Glaser, Marie Schaer, Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 2021
Diminished orienting to social stimuli, and particularly to faces, is a core feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Impaired face processing has been linked to atypical attention processes that trigger a cascade of pathological development contributing to impaired social communication. The aim of the present study is to explore the processing of emotional and neutral faces using an eye-tracking paradigm (the emotional faces task) with a group of 24 children with ASD aged 6 and under and a group of 22 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. We also measure habituation to faces in both groups based on the presentation of repeated facial expressions. Specifically, the task consists of 32 pairs of faces, a neutral face and an emotional face from the same identity, shown side by side on the screen. We observe differential exploration of emotional faces in preschoolers with ASD compared with TD. Participants with ASD make fewer fixations to emotional faces than their TD peers, and the duration of their first fixation on emotional faces is equivalent to their first fixation on neutral faces. These results suggest that emotional faces may be less interesting for children with ASD. We also observe a habituation process to neutral faces in both children with ASD and TD, who looked less at neutral faces during the last quarter of the task compared with the first quarter. By contrast, TD children show increased interest in emotional faces throughout the task, looking slightly more at emotional faces during the last quarter of the task than during the first quarter. Children with ASD demonstrate neither habituation nor increased interest in the changing emotional expressions over the course of the task, looking at the stimuli for equivalent time throughout the task. A lack of increased interest in emotional faces may suggest a lack of sensitivity to changes in expression in young children with ASD.
Ziva Majcen Rosker, Miha Vodicar, Eythor Kristjansson, Diagnostics, 11, 752 (5), 2021
Visual disturbances are commonly reported in patients with neck pain. Smooth pursuit neck torsion (SPNT) test performed in neutral position and with trunk rotated under the stationary head has been used to discriminate between those with cervical component and those without. However, no studies investigated the reliability of the SPNT-test in patients with chronic neck pain and healthy controls. The aim of this study was to assess inter-visit reliability of the SPNT-test while applying different amplitudes and velocities of target movement. Thirty-two controls and thirty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The SPNT-test was performed in neutral position and through 45° torsion positions. The test was performed at 20°/s, 30°/s and 40°/s velocities and at 30°, 40° and 50° amplitudes of cyclic sinusoidal target movements. Interclass correlation coefficient and smallest detectable change were calculated for parameters of gain and SPNT-differences. In patients, moderate to good reliability was observed for gain at 40° and 50° amplitudes and for 20°/s and 30°/s velocities, while moderate to excellent reliability for gain was observed in controls. Both groups presented with moderate to good reliability for SPNT-difference. Our findings imply that amplitudes of 40° and 50° and velocities of 20°/s and 30°/s are the most reliable and should be applied in future studies assessing oculomotor functions during the SPNT test.
Jean-Paul Fischer, Christophe Luxembourger, Education Sciences, 10, 183 (7), 2020
Recent research into character reversals in writings produced by occidental children has shown that they mainly reverse the left-oriented digits (1, 2, 3, 7, and 9) and therefore appear to apply a right-orienting rule. But do they produce similar reversal errors when asked to recognize the digits? In an experiment, based on eye-tracking observations of 50 children (Mage = 5.4 years), children had to point towards a target digit in a 2 × 2 matrix also containing three distractor digits, one of which was the mirror-reversed writing of the correctly written target digit. This recognition task led to a true “battle” in children’s memory between the two writings of the target digit. This battle is shown in the graphical abstract that represents a heat map from a sub-sample of children (on the left side) and the fixation points map from an individual child (on the right side). Rather than following the predicted right-orienting rule, the children’s responses appeared to be biased towards digits in the right-hand column of the 2 × 2 matrices (when the reversed target digit was not in the same column as the correctly written target digit). As a whole, these findings support the hypotheses that many 4- to 6-year-old’s representations of the digit writings are unoriented in their memory and that these children may adopt different solutions to overcome this lack of orientation depending on whether they write or read.
Clara Mehlhose, Daniel Schmitt, Antje Risius, Foods, 10, 904 (4), 2021
Informative food labels are one way to increase nutritional awareness in society and can essentially help individuals maintain balanced dietary practices. Nonetheless, making food labels ‘informative’, in the sense of applicability, is not always easy. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) food labeling is one approach to achieve this goal. Yet, it is neither understood how consumers perceive PACE labels, nor how effective they are in regards to healthy food choices. Moreover, it is of interest to assess the perception of real products in close-to-realistic environments. Therefore, this study examined a simulated purchase situation and consumers’ visual attention on PACE labels—on 20 different real snack products with varying health values. In a laboratory-shopping environment, the gaze behaviors of 91 consumers were examined with a head-mounted eye-tracker. In regards to perception, it was elucidated that every participant noticed at least one PACE label. On average 1.39 PACE label fixations on different products were counted with a mean fixation duration of 0.55 s and a mean time to first fixation of 22.46 s. On average, 22.9% of the participants viewed the PACE labels at least once, but the intensity and duration varied greatly between the different products; ’healthier products’ attracted more visual attention than ‘unhealthier products’. In regards to health choice, it became obvious that the choices observed were rather healthy and PACE labels attracted attention. This may have been especially true for participants with little involvement in physical activity and health behavior, which may have been the main target group. Hence, catchy, communicable PACE labels, as well as balanced product offerings may facilitate more healthy food choices. The real-world laboratory setting offered valuable insights, which should be followed-up on.
undefined Kojovic, undefined Ben Hadid, undefined Franchini, undefined Schaer, Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8, 1508 (10), 2019
Sensory processing issues have been frequently reported in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but their relationship with social and overall adaptive functioning has not been extensively characterized to date. Here, we investigate how sensory processing atypicalities relate with deficits in social skills, impaired social cognition, and general adaptive functioning in a group of preschoolers with ASD. Sixty-four children with ASD aged 3 to 6 were included in this study, along with 36 age-matched typically-developing (TD) peers. Parent-reported measures of sensory processing, social difficulties and overall adaptive functioning were collected for all children. We also obtained precise measures of social attention deployment using a custom-design eye-tracking task depicting naturalistic social scenes. Within the group of children with ASD, higher intensities of sensory issues were associated with more prominent social difficulties and lower adaptive functioning. We also found that children with ASD who had more sensory issues showed visual exploration patterns of social scenes that strongly deviated from the one seen in the TD group. The association of sensory processing atypicalities with “higher-order” functional domains such as social and adaptive functioning in children with ASD stresses the importance of further research on sensory symptoms in autism.
Jess Kerr-Gaffney, Luke Mason, Emily Jones, Hannah Hayward, Jumana Ahmad, Amy Harrison, Eva Loth, Declan Murphy, Kate Tchanturia, Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9, 1057 (4), 2020
Difficulties in socio-emotional functioning are proposed to contribute to the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study aimed to examine emotion recognition abilities in individuals in the acute and recovered stages of AN compared to healthy controls (HCs). A second aim was to examine whether attention to faces and comorbid psychopathology predicted emotion recognition abilities. The films expressions task was administered to 148 participants (46 AN, 51 recovered AN, 51 HC) to assess emotion recognition, during which attention to faces was recorded using eye-tracking. Comorbid psychopathology was assessed using self-report questionnaires and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule–2nd edition (ADOS-2). No significant differences in emotion recognition abilities or attention to faces were found between groups. However, individuals with a lifetime history of AN who scored above the clinical cut-off on the ADOS-2 displayed poorer emotion recognition performance than those scoring below cut-off and HCs. ADOS-2 scores significantly predicted emotion recognition abilities while controlling for group membership and intelligence. Difficulties in emotion recognition appear to be associated with high autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits, rather than a feature of AN. Whether individuals with AN and high ASD traits may require different treatment strategies or adaptations is a question for future research.
Tomohiro Shimizu, Ryo Hachiuma, Hiroki Kajita, Yoshifumi Takatsume, Hideo Saito, Journal of Imaging, 7, 15 (2), 2021
Detecting surgical tools is an essential task for the analysis and evaluation of surgical videos. However, in open surgery such as plastic surgery, it is difficult to detect them because there are surgical tools with similar shapes, such as scissors and needle holders. Unlike endoscopic surgery, the tips of the tools are often hidden in the operating field and are not captured clearly due to low camera resolution, whereas the movements of the tools and hands can be captured. As a result that the different uses of each tool require different hand movements, it is possible to use hand movement data to classify the two types of tools. We combined three modules for localization, selection, and classification, for the detection of the two tools. In the localization module, we employed the Faster R-CNN to detect surgical tools and target hands, and in the classification module, we extracted hand movement information by combining ResNet-18 and LSTM to classify two tools. We created a dataset in which seven different types of open surgery were recorded, and we provided the annotation of surgical tool detection. Our experiments show that our approach successfully detected the two different tools and outperformed the two baseline methods.
John M. Lipski, Languages, 5, 11 (2), 2020
This study examines the processing of two putatively problematic intra-sentential code-switching configurations, following subject pronouns and interrogatives, in a bilingual speech community in which there are no confounding grammatical differences. The languages are Ecuadoran Quichua and the mixed language known as Media Lengua, consisting of the entire Quichua morphosyntactic system but with all lexical roots replaced by their Spanish counterparts. In eye-tracking processing experiments utilizing the visual world paradigm with auditorily presented stimuli, Quichua–Media Lengua bilinguals identified the languages more quickly after pronouns and interrogatives than after lexical items, while acknowledgement of code-switches after pronouns and interrogatives was delayed in comparison with switches following lexical items. The facilitation effect of pronouns and interrogatives evidently provokes a surprise reaction when they are immediately followed by items from another language, and this relative delay may play a role in the low acceptability of code-switched utterances that otherwise violate no grammatical constraints.
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