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Description
spectrophotometer, spectrophotometer, spectrophotometer, spectrophotometer, apparatus, spectrophotometer, spectrometer, spectrophotometer, spectroscope, spectrometer, spectrophotometer
This model was found at
1108 locations
The model is used in
47 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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138 related research fields
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About the Shimadzu UV 2450

The model Shimadzu UV 2450 was found in 1108 unique locations in 47 countries where it was mentioned from 2008 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as General Chemistry, General Materials Science, Pharmaceutical Science, General Medicine, and Physical and Theoretical Chemistry. The model is also used in Organic Chemistry, General Chemical Engineering, Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Drug Discovery, Molecular Medicine, Biotechnology, Molecular Biology, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, General Physics and Astronomy, Chemistry, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Condensed Matter Physics, Polymers and Plastics, Plant Science, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Inorganic Chemistry, Catalysis, Spectroscopy, Mechanics of Materials, Materials Chemistry, Food Science, Biomaterials, and Cell Biology.

About Shimadzu

Shimadzu is a Japanese company founded as early as 1875 in Kyoto (Japan). The organisation manufactures a wide range of precision instruments for research & development and industrial applications. Their line of products includes liquid and gas chromatographs, spectrometers, elemental and surface characterisation systems, high-speed cameras and other analytical instruments. Shimadzu also provides instruments for testing purposes and applies their technology to product development and quality assurance applications.
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Research that uses the Shimadzu UV 2450

Anirban Akhand, Abhra Chanda, Kenta Watanabe, Sourav Das, Tatsuki Tokoro, Kunal Chakraborty, Sugata Hazra, Tomohiro Kuwae, 2019
Abstract. Globally, water bodies adjacent to mangroves are considered sources of atmospheric CO2. We directly measured the partial pressure of CO2 in water, pCO2(water), and other related biogeochemical parameters with very high (1-min) temporal resolution at Dhanchi Island in India’s Sundarbans during the post-monsoon season. We used elemental, stable isotopic, and optical signatures to investigate the sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and organic matter (OM) in these waters. Diel mean pCO2(water) was marginally oversaturated in creeks (efflux, 69 ± 180 µmol m−2 h−1) and undersaturated along the island boundary and in the main river (influx, −17 ± 53 and −31 ± 73 µmol m−2 h−1, respectively) compared to the atmospheric CO2 concentration. The possibility in earlier studies of over- or underestimating the CO2 flux because of an inability to capture tidal minima and maxima was minimized in the present study, which confirmed that the waters surrounding mangroves in this region can act as a sink or a very weak source of atmospheric CO2. δ13C values for DIC suggest a mixed DIC source, and a three-end-member stable isotope mixing model and optical signatures of OM suggest negligible riverine contribution of freshwater to OM. We conclude that the CO2 sink or weak source character was due to a reduced input of riverine freshwater [which usually has high pCO2(water)] and the predominance of pCO2-lean water from the coastal sea, which eventually increases the buffering capacity of the water as evidenced by the Revelle factor. Up-scaling the CO2 flux data for all seasons and the entire estuary, we propose that the CO2 evasion rate observed in this study is much lower than the recently estimated world average. Mangrove areas having such low emissions should be given due emphasis when up-scaling the global mangrove carbon budget from regional observations.
Georgii Vasyliev, Victoria Vorobyova, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2020, 1-14, 2020
Agrifood by-products are a key element within Europe’s sustainable strategies. Valorization and reuse of zero-waste technologies are becoming more popular, and they are commonly named as “second-generation food waste management.” The present study is directed to the valuable extracts of “green” organic compounds from the by-products of fruit and berry/vegetable crops, which can be revalorized in sustainable chemical technology and engineering, namely, in the production of “green” synthesis of nanoparticles and for the inhibition of corrosion and scaling of metals in corrosive media. Numerous types of agrifood by-products (rapeseed pomace, sugar beet pulp, fodder radish cake, grape pomace, and pomegranate peels) were investigated. The waste extracts for corrosion and scale inhibitors of mild steel in tap water were prepared by the conventional extraction method that uses 2-propanol and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Inhibition of scaling and corrosion was investigated in thermal scaling conditions on the surface of the electrode manufactured from mild steel. The LPR technique was applied to measure the corrosion rate, and the scaling rate was determined gravimetrically. The extracts were found to inhibit the corrosion rate 2-3 times, while only radish cake extract inhibited both the corrosion and scaling rates. The waste extracts to produce nanoparticles were prepared by the ultrasound-assisted water extraction with subsequent oxidation by oxygen purge and characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The aqueous grape pomace and pomegranate peel extracts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The reduction capacity of the extracts was assessed using ferric reducing power (FRAP) and phosphomolybdenum (PM) assays. AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The particle size of AgNPs ranged between 40 and 50 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was tested against Escherichia coli using the agar diffusion method and optical density.
Xuan Nui Pham, Hoa Thi Nguyen, Ngan Thi Pham, International Journal of Biomaterials, 2020, 1-12, 2020
In recent years, the green synthesis of nanoparticles via biological processes has attracted considerable attention. Herein, we introduce a facile and green approach for the synthesis of poriferous silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) decorated hydroxylapatite (HAp@Ag) nanoparticles with excellent antibacterial properties. All the nanocomposites were fully characterized in the solid state via various techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), in which the synthesized Ag-NPs (24 nm in diameter) and their homogeneous incorporation on HAp have been studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. The obtained results indicate that the structure and morphology of HAp have no significant changes after the incorporation of Ag-NPs on its surface. Moreover, an impressive antibacterial activity of HAp@Ag nanocomposite against Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recorded by using the agar well diffusion method. As a result, the HAp@Ag nanocomposite promises to be a great biomedical material with high antibacterial properties.
Xuan-Dung Mai, Yen Thi Hai Phan, Van-Quang Nguyen, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2020, 1-5, 2020
Solid assemblies of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are important for diverse applications including LEDs, solar cells, and photosensors; their optical and electrical properties have not been explored yet. Herein, we used amphiphilic CQDs synthesized from citric acid and thiourea by a solvothermal method to fabricate CQD solid films. Optical properties of CQDs studied by UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies indicate that CQDs possess three different emission centers at 425 nm, 525 nm, and 625 nm originating from C sp2 states, N-states, and S-states, respectively. In a solid state, π-π stacking quenched the blue emission, while the red emission increased. Importantly, CQD films exhibited excitation independence, which is important to design solid-state lighting applications.
Zheng Liu, Konglong Xing, Journal of Chemistry, 2021, 1-9, 2021
Activated carbon (PPAC) from pomelo peels was prepared by carbonization and KOH activation. The performance of PPAC was assessed by removing acid red 88 (AR88) in aqueous solution. The most suitable activation processes were found by orthogonal experiments, aimed to achieve the maximum of removal capacity of AR88. Moreover, the possible mechanisms of adsorption were studied through the results of characterization, isotherm fitting, and kinetics simulation. Results showed the preparation parameter that mattered the most to AR88 removal efficiency was the activation temperature of PPAC, followed by impregnation ratio and activation time. The optimal preparation conditions of PPAC were at activation temperature 800°C, activation time 90 min, and impregnation ratio 2.5 : 1. The characterization results showed optimal PPAC had a microporous and amorphous carbon structure whose BET specific area and total pore volume were 2504 m2/g and 1.185 cm3/g, respectively. The isotherm fitting demonstrated that the sorption process followed the Langmuir model, and theoretical maximal sorption value was 1486 mg/g. The kinetics simulation showed that the pseudo-second-order model described the sorption behavior better, suggesting chemisorption seemed to be the rate-limiting step in the adsorption process. This work presented that PPAC was a promising and efficient adsorbent for AR88 from water.
Rodrigo da Costa Duarte, Matheus Costa de Oliveira, Josene Maria Toldo, Paulo Fernando Bruno Gonçalves, Marcos José Leite Santos, Fabiano Severo Rodembusch, International Journal of Photoenergy, 2021, 1-17, 2021
In this work, the role of deoxycholic acid (DCA) as a coadsorbent was investigated in the sensitization of mesoporous TiO2 layers (host) with symmetrical carboxy heptamethine cyanine dyes (guest). Different approaches have been tested, aimed at reducing the H-aggregation and minimizing the competition between cyanine molecules and DCA for active sites of the host, thus improving solar cell efficiency. Heptamethine cyanines containing carboxylic anchoring groups were obtained with good yields. The cyanines present UV-Vis absorption in methanol and dimethylformamide solutions ascribed to fully allowed electronic transitions ( 1 π π ), as well as fluorescence emission in the NIR region, with any evidence of aggregations in both ground and excited states. TD-DFT calculations were also performed in order to study the geometry and charge distribution of these compounds in their ground and excited electronic states. Solid-state photophysics indicates that the cyanines showed excellent adsorption on TiO2, which can be justified by the presence of the -COOH moieties in the structure. Photophysical measurements have revealed the best concentrations of dye and DCA, which resulted in efficient inhibition of cyanine H-aggregates on the TiO2 surface in addition to allow large dye loading. HOMO and LUMO energy levels of the dyes were identified by cyclic voltammetry, showing oxidation and reduction potentials within acceptable limits for application as a photosensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on a TiO2 mesoporous photoanode. Assembled DSSCs have shown a large improvement of the electrical parameters and efficiency when a balance between dye aggregation and the competition to the host active sites was reached.
Likun Gao, Xun Cui, Zewei Wang, Christopher Sewell, Zili Li, Shuang Liang, Mingyue Zhang, Jian Li, Yingjie Hu, Zhiqun Lin, 2020
Abstract The ability to develop highly active and low-cost electrocatalysts represents an important endeavor toward accelerating sluggish water-oxidation kinetics. Herein, we report, for the first time, the implementation and unravelling of photothermal effect of spinel nanoparticles (NPs) on promoting dynamic active sites generation to markedly enhance their oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity via an integrated operando Raman and density functional theory (DFT) study. Specifically, NiFe2O4 (NFO) NPs are first synthesized by capitalizing on amphiphilic star-like diblock copolymers as nanoreactors. Upon the NIR light irradiation, the photothermal heating of the NFO-based electrode progressively raises the temperature, accompanied by a marked decrease of overpotential. Accordingly, only an overpotential of 309 mV is required to yield a high current density of 100 mA cm-2, greatly lower than recently-reported earth-abundant electrocatalysts. More importantly, photothermal effect of NFO NPs not only significantly reduces the activation energy necessitated for water splitting, but also facilitates surface reconstruction into high-active oxyhydroxides at lower potential (1.36 V) under OER conditions, as revealed by operando Raman spectra-electrochemistry. Moreover, the DFT calculation corroborates that these reconstructed (Ni,Fe)oxyhydroxides are electrocatalytically active sites as the kinetics barrier is largely reduced over pure NFO without surface reconstruction. Given the diversity of materials (metal oxides, sulfides, phosphides, etc.) possessing the photo-to-thermal conversion, this effect may thus provide a unique and robust platform to boost highly-active surface species in nanomaterials for fundamental understanding of enhanced performance that may underpin future advances in electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, solar energy conversion and renewable energy production.  
Patrick Veazie, Paul Cockson, Josh Henry, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Brian Whipker, Agriculture, 10, 461 (10), 2020
Essential plant nutrients are needed at crop-specific concentrations to obtain optimal growth and yield. Foliar tissue analysis is the standard method for assessing nutrient levels in plants. Symptoms of nutrient deficiency or toxicity occur when the foliar tissue values become too low or high. Diagnostic nutrient deficiency criteria for Brassica rapa var. Chinensis (bok choy) is lacking in the current literature. In this study, green (‘Black Summer’) and purple (‘Red Pac’) bok choy plants were grown in silica sand culture, with control plants receiving a complete modified Hoagland’s all-nitrate solution, and nutrient-deficient plants induced by using a complete nutrient formula withholding a single nutrient. Tissue samples were collected at the first sign of visual disorder symptoms and analyzed for dry weight and nutrient concentrations of all plant essential elements. Six weeks into the experiment, the newest matured leaves were sampled for chlorophyll a, b, and total carotenoids concentrations for both cultivars, and total anthocyanin concentration in ‘Red Pac’. Compared to control plants, the dry weight of ‘Black Summer’ green bok choy was significantly lower for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), or boron (B) deficiency treatments, and nutrient concentrations were lower for all variables except iron (Fe) deficiency. Dry weight was less in ‘Red Pac’ plants grown without N, potassium (K), Ca, B, or molybdenum (Mo), and nutrient concentrations were lower for all except Mo-deficiency compared to controls. Total chlorophyll and total carotenoid concentrations were lower in leaves from N−, Fe-, and manganese- (Mn) deficient plants of both cultivars. Leaf anthocyanin concentration was lower only for K-, Ca-, and B-deficiencies in ‘Red Pac’. Our results indicate that visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency are well correlated with nutrient disorders. In contrast, changes in dry weight, chlorophyll, and anthocyanin did not show consistent changes across nutrient disorders.
Xinyun Yao, Jiaqi Zuo, Yu-Jue Wang, Ning-Ning Song, Huang-Hao Li, Kaipei Qiu, Frontiers in Chemistry, 9, 2021
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a typical perfluorinated carboxylic acid, is an emerging type of permanent organic pollutants that are regulated by the Stockholm Convention. The degradation of PFOA, however, is quite challenging largely due to the ultra-high stability of C-F bonds. Compared with other techniques, photocatalytic degradation offers the potential advantages of simple operation under mild conditions as well as exceptional decomposition and defluorination efficiency. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most frequently used photocatalysts, but so far, the pristine nanosized TiO2 (e.g., the commercial P25) has been considered inefficient for PFOA degradation, since the photo-generated hydroxyl radicals from TiO2 are not able to directly attack C-F bonds. Mesoporous Sb2O3/TiO2 heterojunctions were therefore rationally designed in this work, of which the confined Sb2O3 nanoparticles in mesoporous TiO2 framework could not only tune the band structure and also increase the number of active sites for PFOA degradation. It was found that, after loading Sb2O3, the absorption of UV light was enhanced, indicating a higher efficiency of light utilization; while the band gap was reduced, which accelerated the separation of photo-generated charge carriers; and most importantly, the valence band edge of the Sb2O3/TiO2 heterojunction was significantly lifted so as to prevent the occurrence of hydroxyl radical pathway. Under the optimal ratio of Sb2O3–TiO2, the resulting catalysts managed to remove 81.7% PFOA in 2 h, with a degradation kinetics 4.2 times faster than the commercial P25. Scavenger tests and electron spin resonance spectra further revealed that such improvement was mainly attributed to the formation of superoxide radicals and photo-generated holes, in which the former drove the decarboxylation from C7F15COOH–C7F15•, and the latter promoted the direct electron transfer for the conversion of C7F15COO−–C7F15COO•. The Sb2O3/TiO2 photocatalysts were highly recyclable, with nearly 90% of the initial activity being retained after five consecutive cycles, guaranteeing the feasibility of long-term operation.
Yi Zhang, Ying Liang, Xin Zhao, Xiu Jin, Leiping Hou, Yu Shi, Golam Ahammed, Agronomy, 9, 733 (11), 2019
Phosphorus (P) deficiency in soils is a major problem for sustainable crop production worldwide. Silicon (Si) is a beneficial element that can promote plant growth, development and responses to stresses. However, the effect of Si on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growth, photosynthesis and mineral uptake under P deficit conditions and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we showed that low P (LP) supply inhibited tomato growth as revealed by significantly decreased fresh and dry weights of shoots and impaired root morphological traits. LP-induced growth inhibition was associated with decreased photosynthetic pigment content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water use efficiency. However, exogenous Si application alleviated LP-induced decreases in growth and physiological parameters. In particular, Si increased Pn by 65.2%, leading to a significantly increased biomass accumulation. Biochemical quantification and in situ visualization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed increased ROS (O2−· and H2O2) accumulation under LP stress, which eventually elevated lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, exogenous Si decreased ROS and malondialdehyde levels by substantially increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. In addition, Si increased concentrations of osmoregulatory substances, such as proline, soluble sugar, soluble proteins, free amino acids, and organic acids under LP stress. Analysis of major element concentrations revealed that exogenous Si application under LP stress not only increased Si uptake but also enhanced the concentrations of most essential elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) in different tissues (roots, leaves, and stems). These results reveal that Si mitigates LP stress by improving photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant potential, and nutrient homeostasis and that it can be used for agronomic management of vegetable crops in P-deficient soils.
Simeng Liao, Shengguo Tang, Meinan Chang, Ming Qi, Jianjun Li, Bie Tan, Qian Gao, Shuo Zhang, Xiaozhen Li, Yulong Yin, Peng Sun, Yulong Tang, Animals, 10, 290 (2), 2020
Early weaning stress impairs the development of gastrointestinal barrier function, causing immune system dysfunctions, reduction in feed intake, and growth retardation. Autophagy was hypothesized to be a key underlying cellular process in these dysfunctions. We conjectured that rapamycin (RAPA) and chloroquine (CQ), as two autophagy-modifying agents, regulate the autophagy process and may produce deleterious or beneficial effects on intestinal health and growth. To explore the effect of autophagy on early weaning stress in piglets, 18 early-weaned piglets were assigned to three treatments (each treatment of six piglets) and treated with an equal volume of RAPA, CQ, or saline. The degree of autophagy and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins and cytokines, as well as intestinal morphology and tight junction protein expression, were evaluated. Compared with the control treatment, RAPA-treated piglets exhibited activated autophagy and had decreased final body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) (p < 0.05), impaired intestinal morphology and tight junction function, and higher inflammatory responses. The CQ-treated piglets showed higher final BW, ADG, jejuna and ileal villus height, and lower autophagy and inflammation, compared with control piglets (p < 0.05). Throughout the experiment, CQ treatment was beneficial to alleviate early weaning stress and intestinal and immune system dysfunction.
Meng Li, Daixu Yuan, Yanhong Liu, Hui Jin, Bie Tan, Animals, 10, 631 (4), 2020
This study was conducted to demonstrate that dietary puerarin supplementation alleviates oxidative stress in the small intestine of diquat-challenged piglets. The results showed that puerarin administration markedly alleviated diquat-induced intestinal injury, which was indicated by the improvement of intestinal morphology, cell proliferation and barrier function. One of the potential mechanisms responsible for this was the decrease in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the small intestine. Puerarin increased the protein expression levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream enzymes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic and its modifier subunit (GCLc and GCLm) in the jejunal mucosa of diquat-induced piglets. Puerarin administration improved intestinal morphology, cell proliferation, and barrier function, and increased Nrf2 and its downstream enzymes. These findings indicate that the dietary supplementation of puerarin attenuates the oxidative stress involving Nrf2 signaling pathways in diquat-challenged piglets.
Yuki Ueda, Yuhei O. Tahara, Makoto Miyata, Akira Ogita, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Toshio Tanaka, Ken-ichi Fujita, Antibiotics, 10, 537 (5), 2021
Nagilactone E, an antifungal agent derived from the root bark of Podocarpus nagi, inhibits 1,3-β glucan synthesis; however, its inhibitory activity is weak. Anethole, the principal component of anise oil, enhances the antifungal activity of nagilactone E. We aimed to determine the combinatorial effect and underlying mechanisms of action of nagilactone E and anethole against the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analyses using gene-deficient strains showed that the multidrug efflux pump PDR5 is associated with nagilactone E resistance; its transcription was gradually restricted in cells treated with the drug combination for a prolonged duration but not in nagilactone-E-treated cells. Green-fluorescent-protein-tagged Pdr5p was intensively expressed and localized on the plasma membrane of nagilactone-E-treated cells but not in drug-combination-treated cells. Quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy revealed the smoothening of intertwined fiber structures on the cell surface of drug-combination-treated cells and spheroplasts, indicating a decline in cell wall components and loss of cell wall strength. Anethole enhanced the antifungal activity of nagilactone E by enabling its retention within cells, thereby accelerating cell wall damage. The combination of nagilactone E and anethole can be employed in clinical settings as an antifungal, as well as a food preservative to restrict food spoilage.
Ashaimaa Y. Moussa, Christopher Lambert, Theresia E.B. Stradal, Samad Ashrafi, Wolfgang Maier, Marc Stadler, Soleiman E. Helaly, Antibiotics, 9, 132 (3), 2020
Fungal associations with nematodes have attracted scientific attention because of the need to develop new biocontrol agents. In this context, Ijuhya vitellina, an antagonistic fungus previously isolated from the plant parasitic cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi, was selected to carry out an in-depth metabolomic study for its active metabolites. Herein, three new nonapeptide peptaibols with leucinostatin based sequences were isolated and identified by 1, 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS-MS. The absolute configuration was assigned based on Marfay’s analysis and Mosher ester formation. The new leucinostatins manifested moderate nematicidal effect against the plant pathogenic nematode Pratylenchus penetrans with LD90 values ranging from 5 to 7 µg/mL. Furthermore, a cyclodepsipeptide, named arthrichitin D, with five amino acid residues attached to a 3-hydroxy-2,4-dimethylhexadeca-4,6-dienoic fatty acid chain was discovered and showed weak nematicidal effect against Caenorhabditis elegans. Chaetoglobosin B and its 19-O-acetyl derivative were also obtained as minor metabolites, and the activity of chaetoglobosin B on the actin cytoskeleton of mammalian cells was assessed.
Bhakti Salgaonkar, Judith Bragança, Bioengineering, 4, 50 (2), 2017
Sugarcane bagasse (SCB), one of the major lignocellulosic agro-industrial waste products, was used as a substrate for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by halophilic archaea. Among the various wild-type halophilic archaeal strains screened, Halogeometricum borinquense strain E3 showed better growth and PHA accumulation as compared to Haloferaxvolcanii strain BBK2, Haloarcula japonica strain BS2, and Halococcus salifodinae strain BK6. Growth kinetics and bioprocess parameters revealed the maximum PHA accumulated by strain E3 to be 50.4 ± 0.1 and 45.7 ± 0.19 (%) with specific productivity (qp) of 3.0 and 2.7 (mg/g/h) using NaCl synthetic medium supplemented with 25% and 50% SCB hydrolysate, respectively. PHAs synthesized by strain E3 were recovered in chloroform using a Soxhlet apparatus. Characterization of the polymer using crotonic acid assay, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy analysis revealed the polymer obtained from SCB hydrolysate to be a co-polymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] comprising of 13.29 mol % 3HV units.
Yosuke Toyotake, Masayoshi Nishiyama, Fumiaki Yokoyama, Takuya Ogawa, Jun Kawamoto, Tatsuo Kurihara, Biomolecules, 10, 745 (5), 2020
Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) introduces fatty acyl groups into the sn-2 position of membrane phospholipids (PLs). Various bacteria produce multiple LPAATs, whereas it is believed that Escherichia coli produces only one essential LPAAT homolog, PlsC—the deletion of which is lethal. However, we found that E. coli possesses another LPAAT homolog named YihG. Here, we show that overexpression of YihG in E. coli carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in plsC allowed its growth at non-permissive temperatures. Analysis of the fatty acyl composition of PLs from the yihG-deletion mutant (∆yihG) revealed that endogenous YihG introduces the cis-vaccenoyl group into the sn-2 position of PLs. Loss of YihG did not affect cell growth or morphology, but ∆yihG cells swam well in liquid medium in contrast to wild-type cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that FliC was highly expressed in ∆yihG cells, and this phenotype was suppressed by expression of recombinant YihG in ∆yihG cells. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the flagellar structure was observed only in ∆yihG cells. These results suggest that YihG has specific functions related to flagellar formation through modulation of the fatty acyl composition of membrane PLs.
Dong-Hun Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim, Yung Mi Lee, Ji-Hoon Kim, Young Keun Jin, Charles Paull, Jong-Sik Ryu, Kyung-Hoon Shin, Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 2021
During the ARA08C expedition in 2017, sediment push cores were collected at an active mud volcano (420 m water depth) in the Canadian Beaufort Sea from two visually discriminative siboglinid tubeworm (ST) habitats that were colonized densely and less densely (ST1 and ST2, respectively). In this study, we investigated the biogeochemical and microbial community characteristics at ST1 by analyzing the geochemical properties, microbial lipids, and nucleic acid signatures, and comparing them with the data previously reported from ST2. The two ST sites showed distinct differences in vertical geochemical gradients [methane, sulfate, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total organic carbon, and total sulfur], with a higher methane flux recorded at ST1 (0.05 mmol cm–2 y–1) than at ST2 (0.01 mmol cm–2 y–1). Notably, the δ13C values of DIC were more depleted at ST1 than at ST2, resulting in a higher proportion of DIC derived from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at ST1 than at ST2. Moreover, both the ST1 and ST2 sites revealed the dominance of AOM-related lipid biomarkers (especially sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol), showing highly 13C-depleted values. The 16S rRNA analyses showed the presence of AOM-related archaea, predominantly anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME)-3 at ST1 and ST2. Our results suggest that AOM-related byproducts (sulfide and DIC) potentially derived from ANME-3 were more abundant at ST1 than at ST2. This variation was attributed to the intensity and persistence of ascending methane. Therefore, our study suggests that AOM-derived byproducts are possibly an essential energy source for tubeworms during chemosynthetic metabolism, shaping different colony types on the seafloor.
Kseniya V. Serebrennikova, Olga D. Hendrickson, Elena A. Zvereva, Demid S. Popravko, Anatoly V. Zherdev, Chuanlai Xu, Boris B. Dzantiev, Biosensors, 10, 198 (12), 2020
This study provides a comparative assessment of the various nanodispersed markers and related detection techniques used in the immunochromatographic detection of an antibiotic lincomycin (LIN). Improving the sensitivity of the competitive lateral flow immunoassay is important, given the increasing demands for the monitoring of chemical contaminants in food. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were used for the development and comparison of three approaches for the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) of LIN, namely, colorimetric, fluorescence, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based LFIAs. It was demonstrated that, for colorimetric and fluorescence analysis, the detection limits were comparable at 0.4 and 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A SERS-based method allowed achieving the gain of five orders of magnitude in the assay sensitivity (1.4 fg/mL) compared to conventional LFIAs. Therefore, an integration of a SERS reporter into the LFIA is a promising tool for extremely sensitive quantitative detection of target analytes. However, implementation of this time-consuming technique requires expensive equipment and skilled personnel. In contrast, conventional AuNP- and QD-based LFIAs can provide simple, rapid, and inexpensive point-of-care testing for practical use.
Xinghui Zhang, Zhibin Geng, Juan Jian, Yiqiang He, Zipeng Lv, Xinxin Liu, Hongming Yuan, Catalysts, 10, 293 (3), 2020
In this work, hexagon-shaped potassium ferrite (K2Fe4O7) crystals with different sizes were prepared using the hydrothermal method. The crystals showed a narrow band gap of 1.44 eV, revealed by UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and was thus used as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst to degrade methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV) in the presence of green oxidant H2O2 under visible-light irradiation. Among the investigated crystals, the as-prepared one with an average size of 20 µm (KFO-20) exhibited better photocatalytic activity due to its high surface area. When it was used as a photo-Fenton catalyst, 100% MB and 92% CV were degraded within 35 min. Moreover, the catalyst maintained high photocatalytic activity and was stable after four continuous cycles. The trapping experiments showed that the active hydroxyl radical (·OH) was dominant in the photo-Fenton reaction. Therefore, this new photo-Fenton catalyst has great potential for the photocatalytic degradation of dye contaminants in water.
Charlie M. Kgoetlana, Soraya P. Malinga, Langelihle N. Dlamini, Catalysts, 10, 699 (6), 2020
Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a photocatalyst that has gained interest amongst researchers because of its non-toxicity, narrow band gap and superior charge transport. Due to its fast charge recombination, modification is vital to counteract this limitation. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of Mn-doped WO3/SnS2 nanoparticles, which were synthesised with the aim of minimising the recombination rates of the photogenerated species. The nanomaterials were characterised using spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Raman, XRD, photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) together with microscopic techniques (FESEM-EDS and high resolution transmission electron microscopy selected area electron diffraction (HRTEM-SAED)) to confirm the successful formation of Mn-WO3/SnS2 nanoparticles. The Mn-doped WO3/SnS2 composite was a mixture of monoclinic and hexagonal phases, confirmed by XRD and Raman analysis. The Mn-WO3/SnS2 heterojunction showed enhanced optical properties compared to those of the un-doped WO3/SnS2 nanoparticles, which confirms the successful charge separation. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis indicated that the nanoparticles were mesoporous as they exhibited a Type IV isotherm. These nanomaterials appeared as a mixture of rectangular rods and sheet-like shapes with an increased surface area (77.14 m2/g) and pore volume (0.0641 cm3/g). The electrochemical measurements indicated a high current density (0.030 mA/cm2) and low charge transfer resistance (157.16 Ω) of the Mn-WO3/SnS2 heterojunction, which infers a high charge separation, also complemented by photoluminescence with low emission peak intensity. The Mott–Schottky (M-S) plot indicated a positive slope characteristic of an n–n heterojunction semiconductor, indicating that electrons are the major charge carriers. Thus, the efficiency of Mn-WO3/SnS2 heterojunction photocatalyst was monitored for the degradation of chlorpyrifos. The effects of pH (3–9), catalyst loading (0.1–2 g) and initial chlorpyrifos concentration (100 ppb–20 ppm) were studied. It was observed that the degradation was purely due to photocatalysis, as no loss of chlorpyrifos was observed within 30 min in the dark. Chlorpyrifos removal using Mn-WO3/SnS2 was performed at the optimum conditions of pH = 7, catalyst loading = 1 g and chlorpyrifos concentration = 1000 ppb in 90 min. The complete degradation of chlorpyrifos and its major degradation by-product 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol (TCP) was achieved. Kinetic studies deduced a second order reaction at 209 × 10−3 M−1s−1.
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