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microscope, microscope, epifluorescence microscope, research fluorescence microscope, microscope
This model was found at
1166 locations
The model is used in
47 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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173 related research fields
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About the Olympus BX60

The model Olympus BX60 was found in 1166 unique locations in 47 countries where it was mentioned from 1997 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Molecular Biology, General Medicine, Genetics, Cell Biology, and Cancer Research. The model is also used in Immunology, Microbiology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Oncology, Biochemistry, Immunology and Allergy, Molecular Medicine, General Neuroscience, Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, General Materials Science, Plant Science, Biotechnology, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Spectroscopy, General Chemistry, Neurology (clinical), Organic Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Biomaterials, Biomedical Engineering, Developmental Biology, Physiology, Pharmacology, and Microbiology (medical).
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Research that uses the Olympus BX60

Hamideh Moravvej, Hamed Memariani, Mojtaba Memariani, Maryam Kabir-Salmani, Alireza Shoae-Hassani, Fahimeh Abdollahimajd, BioMed Research International, 2021, 1-6, 2021
Background. Investigating the viability and proliferative rates of fibroblast cells on human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a scaffold will be an important subject for further research. The aim of this study was to assess the fibroblast viability seeded on acellular HAM, since foreskin neonatal allogenic fibroblasts seeded on HAM accelerate the wound healing process. Methods. Fibroblasts were retrieved from the foreskin of a genetically healthy male infant, and we exploited AM of healthy term neonates to prepare the amniotic scaffold for fibroblast transfer. After cell culture, preparation of acellular HAM, and seeding of cells on HAM based on the protocol, different methods including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 4 ,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI), and propidium iodide (PI) staining were employed for assessment of fibroblast viability on HAM. Results. Based on the results obtained from the DAPI and PI staining, the percentage of viable cells in the former staining was clearly higher than that of the dead cells in the latter one. The results of DAPI and PI staining were in accordance with the findings of MTT assay, confirming that fibroblasts were viable and even proliferate on HAM. Conclusion. Our findings showed the viability of fibroblasts seeded on the acellular HAM using MTT assay, DAPI, and PI staining; however, this study had some limitations. It would be an interesting subject for future research to compare the viability and proliferation rate of fibroblasts seeded on both cellular and acellular HAM.
Karina Wieczorek, Mariusz Kanturski, Cezary Sempruch, Piotr Świątek, PeerJ, 7, e7573, 2019
The structure of the reproductive system of the sexual generation—males and oviparous females—of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera, Aphididae), a serious pest of cultivated plants of Fabaceae, was investigated. For the first time we describe the morphology, histology and ultrastructure of the reproductive system in both morphs of the sexual generation of aphids within one species, using light and fluorescent microscopy, as well as transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that males have testes composed of three follicles fused by the upper ends of the vasa efferentia, the vasa deferentia run independently, the accessory glands are asymmetric and the ejaculatory duct shortened. Oviparous females have ovaries composed of seven ovarioles each. The lateral oviducts join to a short common oviduct connected with the unpaired spermatheca and paired accessory glands. Yolky eggs with an aggregation of symbiotic bacteria at the posterior pole are produced. Histologically, the components of genital tracts are broadly similar: the epithelial cells of the walls of the vasa deferentia and accessory glands of the male and oviparous female have secretory functions which correlate with the age of the studied morphs. We also found symbiotic bacteria within the vasa deferentia epithelial cells in males and within the cells of the lateral oviducts of females. Because the pea aphid is listed among the 14 species that are of the greatest economic importance, our results will be useful for managing aphid populations, protecting plants and ensuring global food security.
Shifeng Wen, Keyu Chen, Yusi Che, Yang Liu, Jie Gan, Yan Zhou, 2020
Abstract In this study, selective laser melting (SLM) technology was used to fabricate Inconel 718/316L bimetallic multi-material with robust bonding strength, and a deep insight into the microstructural morphology, mechanical property and its strengthening mechanism of the joint was taken. The transition region with a wide of approximately 150 μm was defined and showed a dominating columnar region which was embedded in dispersed Laves phase occupied the molten of Inconel 718 closed to the joint. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern detected the strong peaks of γ', γ'' and a weaker peak of d phase precipitates. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed that a distinct grain coarsened region existing and Inconel 718 region had a strong fabric texture with a <001>// Z (BD) orientation. The shear strength of the as-built joint was calculated to be 449.5 MPa, which was comparable to the nickel/steel multi-materials formed by other traditional processing technologies.
Lorena de Mena, Michael A Smith, Jason Martin, Katie L Dunton, Carolina Ceballos-Diaz, Karen Jansen-West, Pedro E Cruz, Kristy D Dillon, Diego Rincon-Limas, Todd E Golde, Brenda D Moore, Yona Levites, 2020
Abstract BackgroundSelf-assembly of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into aggregates, from small oligomers to amyloid fibrils, is fundamentally linked with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However it is clear that not all forms of Aβ are equally harmful, and that linking a specific aggregate to toxicity also depends on the assays and model systems used [1, 2]. Though a central postulate of the amyloid cascade hypothesis, there remain many gaps in our understanding regarding the links between Aβ deposition and neurodegeneration.MethodsIn this study, we examined familial mutations of Aβ that increase aggregation and oligomerization, E22G and DE22, and induce cerebral amyloid angiopathy, E22Q and D23N. We also investigated synthetic mutations that stabilize dimerization, S26C, and a phospho-mimetic, S8E, and non-phospho-mimetic, S8A. To that end, we utilized BRI2-Aβ fusion technology and rAAV2/1 based somatic brain transgenesis in mice to selectively express individual mutant Aβ species in vivo . In parallel we generated PhiC31-based transgenic Drosophila melanogaster expressing wild type (WT) and Aβ40 and Aβ42 mutants, fused to the Argos signal peptide to assess the extent of Aβ42-induced toxicity as well as to interrogate the combined effect of different Aβ40 and Aβ42 species.ResultsWhen expressed in the mouse brain for 6 months, Aβ42 E22G, Aβ42 E22Q/D23N, and Aβ42WT formed amyloid aggregates consisting of some diffuse material as well as cored plaques, whereas other mutants formed predominantly diffuse amyloid deposits. Moreover, while Aβ40WT showed no distinctive phenotype, Aβ40 E22G and E22Q/D23N formed unique aggregates that accumulated in mouse brains. This is the first evidence that mutant Aβ40 overexpression leads to deposition under certain conditions. Interestingly, we found that mutant Aβ42 E22G, E22Q, and S26C, but not Aβ40, were toxic to the eye of Drosophila . In contrast, flies expressing a copy of Aβ40 (WT or mutants) in addition to Aβ42WT, showed improved phenotypes, suggesting possible protective qualities for Aβ40.ConclusionsThese studies suggest that some Aβ40 mutants form unique amyloid aggregates in mouse brains, despite protecting against Aβ42 toxicity in Drosophila , which highlights the significance of using different systems for a better understanding of AD pathogenicity and more accurate screening for new potential therapies.
Jinglan Wang, Laura Alvarez, Silvia Bulgheresi, Felipe Cava, Tanneke den Blaauwen, Antibiotics, 10, 274 (3), 2021
Peptidoglycan (PG) is essential for bacterial survival and maintaining cell shape. The rod-shaped model bacterium Escherichia coli has a set of seven endopeptidases that remodel the PG during cell growth. The gamma proteobacterium Candidatus Thiosymbion oneisti is also rod-shaped and attaches to the cuticle of its nematode host by one pole. It widens and divides by longitudinal fission using the canonical proteins MreB and FtsZ. The PG layer of Ca. T. oneisti has an unusually high peptide cross-linkage of 67% but relatively short glycan chains with an average length of 12 disaccharides. Curiously, it has only two predicted endopeptidases, MepA and PBP4. Cellular localization of symbiont PBP4 by fluorescently labeled antibodies reveals its polar localization and its accumulation at the constriction sites, suggesting that PBP4 is involved in PG biosynthesis during septum formation. Isolated symbiont PBP4 protein shows a different selectivity for β-lactams compared to its homologue from E. coli. Bocillin-FL binding by PBP4 is activated by some β-lactams, suggesting the presence of an allosteric binding site. Overall, our data point to a role of PBP4 in PG cleavage during the longitudinal cell division and to a PG that might have been adapted to the symbiotic lifestyle.
Emma G. Norris, Diane Dalecki, Denise C. Hocking, Applied Sciences, 10, 2907 (8), 2020
Ultrasound can influence biological systems through several distinct acoustic mechanisms that can be manipulated by varying reaction conditions and acoustic exposure parameters. We recently reported a new ultrasound-based fabrication technology that exploits the ability of ultrasound to generate localized mechanical forces and thermal effects to control collagen fiber microstructure non-invasively. Exposing solutions of type I collagen to ultrasound during the period of microfibril assembly produced changes in collagen fiber structure and alignment, and increased the biological activity of the resultant collagen hydrogels. In the extracellular matrix, interactions between fibronectin and collagen fibrils influence the biological activity of both proteins. Thus, in the present study, we examined how addition of fibronectin to collagen solutions prior to ultrasound exposure affects protein organization and the biological activity of the composite hydrogels. Results indicate that ultrasound can alter the distribution of fibronectin within 3D hydrogels via thermal and non-thermal mechanisms to produce composite hydrogels that support accelerated microtissue formation. The use of acoustic energy to drive changes in protein conformation to functionalize biomaterials has much potential as a unique, non-invasive technology for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Mark A. Bewernitz, Archana C. Lovett, Laurie B. Gower, Applied Sciences, 10, 8551 (23), 2020
Micron-sized core-shell particles consisting of a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mineral shell and a fluidic core were generated using a biomimetic approach, for the purpose of use as biodegradable microcapsules for release of active agents. Dinoflagellate cysts, unicellular organisms which deposit a protective hard mineral shell around their soft and fluidic cellular interior, served as our inspiration. Using the biomimetic polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process, calcium carbonate coatings were deposited on charged emulsion droplets and liposomes. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and confocal fluorescence microscopy were used to demonstrate that smooth CaCO3 mineral coatings can be deposited onto the high curvature surfaces of emulsions and liposomes to yield micron-sized microcapsules for the effective entrapment of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic active agents. These biodegradable and biocompatible CaCO3 microcapsules are novel systems for producing a powdered form of fluid-containing capsules for storage and transport of pharma/chemical agents. They may be used in lieu of, or in conjunction with, existing microcapsule delivery approaches, as well as providing a convenient foundation for which polymeric coatings could be further applied, allowing for more complex targeting and/or chemical-release control.
Céline Serrano, Morgane Dos Santos, Dimitri Kereselidze, Louison Beugnies, Philippe Lestaevel, Roseline Poirier, Christelle Durand, Biology, 10, 192 (3), 2021
The cognitive consequences of postnatal brain exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) at low to moderate doses in the adult are not fully established. Because of the advent of pediatric computed tomography scans used for head exploration, improving our knowledge of these effects represents a major scientific challenge. To evaluate how IR may affect the developing brain, models of either whole brain (WB) or targeted dorsal dentate gyrus (DDG) irradiation in C57Bl/6J ten-day-old male mice were previously developed. Here, using these models, we assessed and compared the effect of IR (doses range: 0.25–2 Gy) on long-term spatial memory in adulthood using a spatial water maze task. We then evaluated the effects of IR exposure on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a form of plasticity involved in spatial memory. Three months after WB exposure, none of the doses resulted in spatial memory impairment. In contrast, a deficit in memory retrieval was identified after DDG exposure for the dose of 1 Gy only, highlighting a non-monotonic dose-effect relationship in this model. At this dose, a brain irradiated volume effect was also observed when studying adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the two models. In particular, only DDG exposure caused alteration in cell differentiation. The most deleterious effect observed in adult hippocampal neurogenesis after targeted DDG exposure at 1 Gy may contribute to the memory retrieval deficit in this model. Altogether these results highlight the complexity of IR mechanisms in the brain that can lead or not to cognitive disorders and provide new knowledge of interest for the radiation protection of children.
Giandomenico Corrado, Luigi Formisano, Veronica De Micco, Antonio Pannico, Maria Giordano, Christophe El-Nakhel, Pasquale Chiaiese, Raffaele Sacchi, Youssef Rouphael, Biology, 9, 158 (7), 2020
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is a leafy green with a short-production cycle that is emerging as a model species among aromatic plants. Modulating the mineral composition of the nutrient solution has proved to be a valuable tool to uncover the mechanisms and responses that higher plants adopt in relation to the availability of mineral nutrients. The aim of this work was to examine the effects on basil of four isosmotic nutrient solutions with different nitrate to chloride ratios. These two anions share uptake and transport mechanisms in plants and are often considered antagonist. To this goal, we analyzed morpho-anatomical and physiological parameters as well as quality-related traits, such as the antioxidant capacity, the leaf color, the mineral composition, and the aromatic profile in relation to the nutrient ratios. Moreover, using a full factorial design, we analyzed leaves in two consecutive harvests. The data indicated a broad, multifaceted plant response to the different nutritional ratios, with almost all the recorded parameters involved. Overall, the effects on basil can be explained by considering an interdependent combination of the nitrate and chloride roles in plant nutrition and physiology. Our work revealed the extent of the modification that can be achieved in basil through the modification of the nutrient solution. It also provided indications for more nutrient efficient growing conditions, because a moderate increase in chloride limits the expected negative impact of a sub-optimal nitrate fertilization.
Tomasz Kowalczyk, Przemysław Sitarek, Monika Toma, Laurent Picot, Marzena Wielanek, Ewa Skała, Tomasz Śliwiński, Biomolecules, 10, 510 (4), 2020
Many biologically-active plant-derived compounds have therapeutic or chemopreventive effects. The use of plant in vitro cultures in conjunction with modern genetic engineering techniques allows greater amounts of valuable secondary metabolites to be obtained without interfering with the natural environment. This work presents the first findings concerning the acquisition of transgenic hairy roots of Senna obtusifolia overexpressing the gene encoding squalene synthase 1 from Panax ginseng (PgSS1) (SOPSS hairy loot lines) involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. Our results confirm that one of PgSS1-overexpressing hairy root line extracts (SOPSS2) possess a high cytotoxic effect against a human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (NALM6) cell line. Further analysis of the cell cycle, the expression of apoptosis-related genes (TP53, PUMA, NOXA, BAX) and the observed decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential also confirmed that the SOPSS2 hairy root extract displays the highest effects; similar results were also obtained for this extract combined with doxorubicin. The high cytotoxic activity, observed both alone or in combination with doxorubicin, may be due to the higher content of betulinic acid as determined by HPLC analysis. Our results suggest synergistic effects of tested extract (betulinic acid in greater amount) with doxorubicin which may be used in the future to develop new effective strategies of cancer chemosensitization.
Ru Zhang, Xiaopeng Liu, Yajuan Li, Ming Wang, Lin Chen, Bing Hu, Biomolecules, 10, 1451 (10), 2020
Cochlear hair cells in human beings cannot regenerate after loss; however, those in fish and other lower species can. Recently, the role of inflammation in hair cell regeneration has been attracting the attention of scientists. In the present study, we investigated how suppression of inflammatory factors affects hair cell regeneration and the functional recovery of regenerated hair cells in zebrafish. We killed hair cells in the lateral line of zebrafish larvae with CuSO4 to induce an inflammatory response and coapplied BRS-28, an anti-inflammatory agent to suppress the inflammation. The recovery of the hair cell number and rheotaxis was slower when CuSO4 and BRS-28 were coapplied than when CuSO4 was applied alone. The recovery of hair cell count lagged behind that of the calcium imaging signal during the regeneration. The calcium imaging signal in the neuromasts in the inflammation-inhibited group was weaker than that in the noninflammation-inhibited group at the early stage of regeneration, although it returned to normal at the late stage. Our study demonstrates that suppressing inflammation by BRS-28 delays hair cell regeneration and functional recovery when hair cells are damaged. We suspect that BRS-28 inhibits pro-inflammatory factors and thereby reduces the migration of macrophages to delay the regeneration of hair cells.
Dar’ya Y. Pozhidayeva, Sean P. Farris, Calla M. Goeke, Evan J. Firsick, Kayla G. Townsley, Marina Guizzetti, Angela R. Ozburn, Brain Sciences, 10, 109 (2), 2020
Binge drinking is a dangerous pattern of behavior. We tested whether chronically manipulating nucleus accumbens (NAc) activity (via clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) and Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)) could produce lasting effects on ethanol binge-like drinking in mice selectively bred to drink to intoxication. We found chronically increasing NAc activity (4 weeks, via CNO and the excitatory DREADD, hM3Dq) decreased binge-like drinking, but did not observe CNO-induced changes in drinking with the inhibitory DREADD, hM4Di. The CNO/hM3Dq-induced reduction in ethanol drinking persisted for at least one week, suggesting adaptive neuroplasticity via transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Therefore, we defined this plasticity at the morphological and transcriptomic levels. We found that chronic binge drinking (6 weeks) altered neuronal morphology in the NAc, an effect that was ameliorated with CNO/hM3Dq. Moreover, we detected significant changes in expression of several plasticity-related genes with binge drinking that were ameliorated with CNO treatment (e.g., Hdac4). Lastly, we found that LMK235, an HDAC4/5 inhibitor, reduced binge-like drinking. Thus, we were able to target specific molecular pathways using pharmacology to mimic the behavioral effects of DREADDs.
Parminder Vig, Deyin Lu, Amber Paul, Ram Kuwar, Maria Lopez, Dobrivoje Stokic, A. Leis, Michael Garrett, Fengwei Bai, Brain Sciences, 9, 1 (1), 2018
West Nile virus (WNV) infection results in a spectrum of neurological symptoms, ranging from a benign fever to severe WNV neuroinvasive disease with high mortality. Many who recover from WNV neuroinvasive infection present with long-term deficits, including weakness, fatigue, and cognitive problems. While neurons are a main target of WNV, other cell types, especially astrocytes, play an important role in promoting WNV-mediated central nervous system (CNS) damage. Conversely, it has been shown that cultured primary astrocytes secrete high levels of interferons (IFNs) immediately after WNV exposure to protect neighboring astrocytes, as well as neurons. However, how intrinsic responses to WNV in specific cell types and different regions of the brain modify immune protection is not fully understood. Here, we used a mouse ex vivo spinal cord slice culture (SCSC) and cerebellar slice culture (CSC) models to determine the innate immune responses specific to the CNS during WNV infection. Slices were prepared from the spinal cord and cerebellar tissue of 7–9-day-old mouse pups. Four-day-old SCSC or CSC were infected with 1 × 103 or 1 × 105 PFU of WNV, respectively. After 12 h exposure to WNV and 3 days post-infection in normal growth media, the pooled slice cultures were processed for total RNA extraction and for gene expression patterns using mouse Affymetrix arrays. The expression patterns of a number of genes were significantly altered between the mock- and WNV-treated groups, both in the CSCs and SCSCs. However, distinct differences were observed when CSC data were compared with SCSC. CSCs showed robust induction of interferons (IFNs), IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and regulatory factors. Some of the antiviral genes related to IFN were upregulated more than 25-fold in CSCs as compared to mock or SCSC. Though SCSCs had twice the number of dysregulated genes, as compared CSCs, they exhibited a much subdued IFN response. In addition, SCSCs showed astrogliosis and upregulation of astrocytic marker genes. In sum, our results suggest that early anti-inflammatory response to WNV infection in CSCs may be due to large population of distinct astrocytic cell types, and lack of those specialized astrocytes in SCSC may make spinal cord cells more susceptible to WNV damage. Further, the understanding of early intrinsic immune response events in WNV-infected ex vivo culture models could help develop potential therapies against WNV.
Gabriela Ramirez-Hernandez, Elva Adan-Castro, Nundehui Diaz-Lezama, Xarubet Ruiz-Herrera, Gonzalo Martinez de la Escalera, Yazmin Macotela, Carmen Clapp, Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12, 2021
Prolactin (PRL) levels are reduced in the circulation of rats with diabetes or obesity, and lower circulating levels of PRL correlate with increased prevalence of diabetes and a higher risk of metabolic alterations in the clinic. Furthermore, PRL stimulates β-cell proliferation, survival, and insulin production and pregnant mice lacking PRL receptors in β-cells develop gestational diabetes. To investigate the protective effect of endogenous PRL against diabetes outside pregnancy, we compared the number of cases and severity of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia between C57BL/6 mice null for the PRL receptor gene (Prlr-/-) and wild-type mice (Prlr+/+). STZ-treated diabetic Prlr-/- mice showed a higher number of cases and later recovery from hyperglycemia, exacerbated glucose levels, and glucose intolerance compared to the Prlr+/+ mice counterparts. Consistent with the worsening of hyperglycemia, pancreatic islet density, β-cell number, proliferation, and survival, as well as circulating insulin levels were reduced, whereas α-cell number and pancreatic inflammation were increased in the absence of PRL signaling. Deletion of the PRL receptor did not alter the metabolic parameters in vehicle-treated animals. We conclude that PRL protects whole body glucose homeostasis by reducing β-cell loss and pancreatic inflammation in STZ-induced diabetes. Medications elevating PRL circulating levels may prove to be beneficial in diabetes.
Chiara Cirillo, Carmen Arena, Youssef Rouphael, Rosanna Caputo, Chiara Amitrano, Francesca Petracca, Sara De Francesco, Ermenegilda Vitale, Arturo Erbaggio, Antonello Bonfante, Veronica De Micco, Frontiers in Environmental Science, 9, 2021
In southern Mediterranean areas, vineyards are facing the combination of increasing air temperature, drought and frequency of extreme events (e.g., heat waves) due to climate change. Since most of the berry growth and ripening phases occur during the aridity period, such environmental constraints are responsible for limitations in yield and berry quality. Within this scenario, to achieve vineyard sustainability, renewed approaches in vineyard management have been proposed and the use of plant biostimulants seems a prominent and environmental friendly practice. The aim of this study was to test four combinations of a tropical plant extract and conventional chemicals for disease control on morpho-anatomical, physiological, biochemical and berry quality in Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera “Aglianico.” In particular, we aimed to evaluate the possibility to counteract the negative effects of the reductions in copper distribution, by applying the tropical plant extract enriched with: micronutrients, enzymes involved in the activation of natural defense, aminoacids, and vitamins. The halved dose of Cu in combination with the tropical plant extract allowed maintaining a reduced vegetative vigor. In the second year of treatment, the addition of the plant extract significantly improved leaf gas exchanges and photochemistry as well as the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments. At berry level, the plant extract induced an increase in phenolics accompanied by a decrease in soluble sugars. The overall results showed that the expected differences in growth performance and productivity in vines are linked to different eco-physiological and structural properties induced by the various treatments. The tropical plant extract also primed plant defenses at the leaf and fruit levels, mainly due to modifications of some structural and biochemical traits, respectively.
Sumedh Shah, Gregor Rodriguez, Alexis Musick, Winston Walters, Nicolas de Cordoba, Eric Barbarite, Megan Marlow, Brian Marples, Jeffrey Prince, Ricardo Komotar, Steven Vanni, Regina Graham, Cancers, 11, 159 (2), 2019
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, and despite optimized treatment options, median survival remains dismal. Contemporary evidence suggests disease recurrence results from expansion of a robustly radioresistant subset of GBM progenitor cells, termed GBM stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we utilized transmission electron microscopy to uncover ultrastructural effects on patient-derived GSC lines exposed to supratherapeutic radiotherapy levels. Elevated autophagosome formation and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) internal diameter, a surrogate for ER stress and activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), was uncovered. These observations were confirmed via protein expression through Western blot. Upon interrogating genomic data from an open-access GBM patient database, overexpression of UPR-related chaperone protein genes was inversely correlated with patient survival. This indicated controlled UPR may play a role in promoting radioresistance. To determine if potentiating UPR further can induce apoptosis, we exposed GSCs to radiation with an ER stress-inducing drug, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), and found dose-dependent decreases in viability and increased apoptotic marker expression. Taken together, our results indicate GSC radioresistance is, in part, achieved by overexpression and overactivation of ER stress-related pathways, and this effect can be overcome via potentiation of UPR, leading to loss of GSC viability.
Gurman Grewal, Bahar Patlar, Alberto Civetta, Cells, 10, 289 (2), 2021
In Drosophila, male reproductive fitness can be affected by any number of processes, ranging from development of gametes, transfer to and storage of mature sperm within the female sperm storage organs, and utilization of sperm for fertilization. We have previously identified the 89B cytogenetic map position of D. melanogaster as a hub for genes that effect male paternity success when disturbed. Here, we used RNA interference to test 11 genes that are highly expressed in the testes and located within the 89B region for their role in sperm competition and male fecundity when their expression is perturbed. Testes-specific knockdown (KD) of bor and CSN5 resulted in complete sterility, whereas KD of CG31287, Manf and Mst89B, showed a breakdown in sperm competitive success when second to mate (P2 < 0.5) and reduced fecundity in single matings. The low fecundity of Manf KD is explained by a significant reduction in the amount of mature sperm produced. KD of Mst89B and CG31287 does not affect sperm production, sperm transfer into the female bursa or storage within 30 min after mating. Instead, a significant reduction of sperm in female storage is observed 24 h after mating. Egg hatchability 24 h after mating is also drastically reduced for females mated to Mst89B or CG31287 KD males, and this reduction parallels the decrease in fecundity. We show that normal germ-line expression of Mst89B and CG31287 is needed for effective sperm usage and egg fertilization.
Han-Yu Wang, Chun-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Ru Shen, Ting-Yu Chen, Chia-Yih Wang, Pao-Lin Kuo, Cells, 10, 361 (2), 2021
Septins are GTP-binding proteins that form heteromeric filaments for proper cell growth and migration. Among the septins, septin7 (SEPT7) is an important component of all septin filaments. Here we show that protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates SEPT7 at Thr197, thus disrupting septin filament dynamics and ciliogenesis. The Thr197 residue of SEPT7, a PKA phosphorylating site, was conserved among different species. Treatment with cAMP or overexpression of PKA catalytic subunit (PKACA2) induced SEPT7 phosphorylation, followed by disruption of septin filament formation. Constitutive phosphorylation of SEPT7 at Thr197 reduced SEPT7‒SEPT7 interaction, but did not affect SEPT7‒SEPT6‒SEPT2 or SEPT4 interaction. Moreover, we noted that SEPT7 interacted with PKACA2 via its GTP-binding domain. Furthermore, PKA-mediated SEPT7 phosphorylation disrupted primary cilia formation. Thus, our data uncover the novel biological function of SEPT7 phosphorylation in septin filament polymerization and primary cilia formation.
Sofia Galego, Linda Azevedo Kauppila, Rui Malhó, José Pimentel, Maria Alexandra Brito, Cells, 10, 378 (2), 2021
Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) is increasingly expressed in mice along with breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) development. We aim to ascertain MEF2C expression in human BCBM, establish the relationship with disease severity, disclose the involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and β-catenin, also known as KDR and CTNNB1, respectively, and investigate if matched primary tumors express the protein. We studied resected BCBM for the expression of MEF2C, VEGFR-2, and ß-catenin, as well as proliferation (Ki-67) and epithelial (pan Cytokeratin) markers, and related experimental and clinical data. MEF2C expression was further assessed in matched primary tumors and non-BCBM samples used as controls. MEF2C expression was observed in BCBM, but not in controls, and was categorized into three phenotypes (P): P1, with extranuclear location; P2, with extranuclear and nuclear staining, and P3, with nuclear location. Nuclear translocation increased with metastases extension and Ki-67-positive cells number. P1 was associated with higher VEFGR-2 plasma membrane immunoreactivity, whereas P2 and P3 were accompanied by protein dislocation. P1 was accompanied by β-catenin membrane expression, while P2 and P3 exhibited β-catenin nuclear translocation. Primary BC samples expressed MEF2C in mammary ducts and scattered cells in the parenchyma. MEF2C emerges as a player in BCBM associated with disease severity and VEGFR-2 and β-catenin signaling.
Alexis Darras, Kevin Peikert, Antonia Rabe, François Yaya, Greta Simionato, Thomas John, Anil Kumar Dasanna, Semen Buvalyy, Jürgen Geisel, Andreas Hermann, Dmitry A. Fedosov, Adrian Danek, Christian Wagner, Lars Kaestner, Cells, 10, 788 (4), 2021
(1) Background: Chorea-acanthocytosis and McLeod syndrome are the core diseases among the group of rare neurodegenerative disorders called neuroacanthocytosis syndromes (NASs). NAS patients have a variable number of irregularly spiky erythrocytes, so-called acanthocytes. Their detection is a crucial but error-prone parameter in the diagnosis of NASs, often leading to misdiagnoses. (2) Methods: We measured the standard Westergren erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of various blood samples from NAS patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, we manipulated the ESR by swapping the erythrocytes and plasma of different individuals, as well as replacing plasma with dextran. These measurements were complemented by clinical laboratory data and single-cell adhesion force measurements. Additionally, we followed theoretical modeling approaches. (3) Results: We show that the acanthocyte sedimentation rate (ASR) with a two-hour read-out is significantly prolonged in chorea-acanthocytosis and McLeod syndrome without overlap compared to the ESR of the controls. Mechanistically, through modern colloidal physics, we show that acanthocyte aggregation and plasma fibrinogen levels slow down the sedimentation. Moreover, the inverse of ASR correlates with the number of acanthocytes (R2=0.61, p=0.004). (4) Conclusions: The ASR/ESR is a clear, robust and easily obtainable diagnostic marker. Independently of NASs, we also regard this study as a hallmark of the physical view of erythrocyte sedimentation by describing anticoagulated blood in stasis as a percolating gel, allowing the application of colloidal physics theory.
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