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About the Nikon Eclipse E800

The model Nikon Eclipse E800 was found in 846 unique locations in 38 countries where it was mentioned from 1999 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, General Medicine, Genetics, and Immunology. The model is also used in General Neuroscience, Cancer Research, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, Biochemistry, Immunology and Allergy, Oncology, Molecular Medicine, Pharmacology, Developmental Biology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Neurology, Microbiology, Neurology (clinical), Physiology, General Chemistry, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Plant Science, General Physics and Astronomy, Drug Discovery, Biomedical Engineering, Genetics (clinical), Biotechnology, Bioengineering, and Histology.
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Research that uses the Nikon Eclipse E800

Anna Lavezzi, Riffat Mehboob, Graziella Alfonsi, Stefano Ferrero, 2020
Abstract Background - The purpose of this study was to research possible morphological and functional alterations of the substantia nigra in SIDS. Methods - Brainstems of 46 victims of sudden infant death, aged from 1 to 7 months, were investigated. Twenty-six of these cases were diagnosed as SIDS, due to the lack of any pathological finding, while the remaining 20 cases, in which the cause of death was determined at autopsy, served as controls. Maternal smoking was reported in 10% of controls and 77% of SIDS. Histopathological examination of the substantia nigra was done on midbrain 5-µm-thick sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Klüver-Barrera. Densitometry, immunohistochemistry and histochemistry were applied to highlight the neuronal concentration, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and neuromelanin, respectively. Results - Hypoplasia of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra was observed in SIDS but not in controls. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra was significantly higher in controls than in SIDS. Neuromelanin was observed as dark granules only in 4 infants of the control group but never in SIDS. A significant correlation was found between hypoplasia/low neuronal density, low tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta and maternal smoking. Conclusion - The substantia nigra pars compacta, that is the main dopamine center in the brain, is involved in the control of many functions, including the sleep-arousal phase, and hence, its structural and/or functional alterations may explain the pathogenesis of SIDS, that often occurs during sleep. This study also indicates that maternal smoking can may have strongly influenced the SN altered development. Trial registration – not applicable for this study
Margherita Maranesi, Cecilia Dall’Aglio, Gabriele Acuti, Katia Cappelli, Massimo Trabalza Marinucci, Roberta Galarini, Chiara Suvieri, Massimo Zerani, Animals, 11, 1727 (6), 2021
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary polyphenols on the expression of the effectors involved in inflammation and apoptosis in rabbit ovary. New Zealand White female rabbits were fed a basal control diet (CTR), or the same diet supplemented with a polyphenolic concentrate (POL, 282.4 mg/kg) obtained from olive mill waste waters. The follicle counts and the relative mRNA (RT-qPCR) and protein (immunohistochemistry) expression of the effectors involved in inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2; interleukin-1beta; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNFA) and apoptosis (BCL2-associated X protein, BAX), detected in the ovaries of both groups, were examined. The POL diet increased the primary and total follicles number. Cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was higher (p < 0.05) in the POL group than in the CTR group, whereas BAX was lower (p < 0.05) in POL than CTR. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of all the proteins examined, with weaker (p < 0.05) COX2 and BAX signals in POL. No differences between the CTR and POL groups were observed for IL1B and TNFA gene and protein expression. These preliminary findings show that dietary polyphenols modulate inflammatory and apoptotic activities in rabbit ovary, regulating cyclooxygenase-2 and BAX expression, thus suggesting a functional involvement of these dietary compounds in mammalian reproduction.
Francesca Grasselli, Simona Bussolati, Stefano Grolli, Rosanna Di Lecce, Cecilia Dall’Aglio, Giuseppina Basini, Animals, 11, 1812 (6), 2021
In addition to the well-known central modulatory role of orexins, we recently demonstrated a peripheral involvement in swine granulosa cells for orexin A and in adipose tissue for orexin B (OXB). The aim of present research was to verify immunolocalization of OXB and its potential role in modulating the main features of swine granulosa cells. In particular, we explored the effects on granulosa cell proliferation (through the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine), cell metabolic activity (as indirect evaluation by the assessment of ATP), steroidogenic activity (by immunoenzymatic examination) and redox status (evaluating the production of superoxide anion by means of the WST test, production of nitric oxide through the use of the Griess test and the non-enzymatic reducing power by FRAP test). Our data point out that OXB does not modify granulosa cell growth, steroidogenesis and superoxide anion generation. On the contrary, the peptide stimulates (p < 0.05) nitric oxide output and non-enzymatic reducing power. Since new vessel growth is crucial for ovarian follicle development, a further aim of this study was to explore the expression of prepro-orexin and the effects of OXB on swine aortic endothelial cells. We found that the peptide is ineffective in modulating cell growth, while it inhibits redox status parameters. In addition, we demonstrated a stimulatory effect on angiogenesis evaluated in fibrin gel angiogenesis assay. Taken together, OXB appears to be potentially involved in the modulation of redox status in granulosa and endothelial cells and we could argue an involvement of the peptide in the follicular angiogenic events.
Grazyna Nowak, Judit Megyesi, William J. Craigen, Biomolecules, 10, 585 (4), 2020
Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) constitute major transporters mediating bidirectional movement of solutes between cytoplasm and mitochondria. We aimed to determine if VDAC1 plays a role in recovery of mitochondrial and kidney functions after ischemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Kidney function decreased after ischemia and recovered in wild-type (WT), but not in VDAC1-deficient mice. Mitochondrial maximum respiration, activities of respiratory complexes and FoF1-ATPase, and ATP content in renal cortex decreased after ischemia and recovered in WT mice. VDAC1 deletion reduced respiration and ATP content in non-injured kidneys. Further, VDAC1 deletion blocked return of activities of respiratory complexes and FoF1-ATPase, and recovery of respiration and ATP content after ischemia. Deletion of VDAC1 exacerbated ischemia-induced mitochondrial fission, but did not aggravate morphological damage to proximal tubules after ischemia. However, VDAC1 deficiency impaired recovery of kidney morphology and increased renal interstitial collagen accumulation. Thus, our data show a novel role for VDAC1 in regulating renal mitochondrial dynamics and recovery of mitochondrial function and ATP levels after AKI. We conclude that the presence of VDAC1 (1) stimulates capacity of renal mitochondria for respiration and ATP production, (2) reduces mitochondrial fission, (3) promotes recovery of mitochondrial function and dynamics, renal morphology, and kidney functions, and (4) increases survival after AKI.
Jennifer Clarke, Can Kayatekin, Catherine Viel, Lamya Shihabuddin, Sergio Pablo Sardi, Biomedicines, 9, 446 (5), 2021
Genetic, epidemiological and experimental evidence implicate lysosomal dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and related synucleinopathies. Investigate several mouse models of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) and evaluate pathologies reminiscent of synucleinopathies. We obtained brain tissue from symptomatic mouse models of Gaucher, Fabry, Sandhoff, Niemann–Pick A (NPA), Hurler, Pompe and Niemann–Pick C (NPC) diseases and assessed for the presence of Lewy body-like pathology (proteinase K-resistant α-synuclein and tau aggregates) and neuroinflammation (microglial Iba1 and astrocytic GFAP) by immunofluorescence. All seven LSD models exhibited evidence of proteinopathy and/or inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). However, these phenotypes were divergent. Gaucher and Fabry mouse models displayed proteinase K-resistant α-synuclein and tau aggregates but no neuroinflammation; whereas Sandhoff, NPA and NPC showed marked neuroinflammation and no overt proteinopathy. Pompe disease animals uniquely displayed widespread distribution of tau aggregates accompanied by moderate microglial activation. Hurler mice also demonstrated proteinopathy and microglial activation. The present study demonstrated additional links between LSDs and pathogenic phenotypes that are hallmarks of synucleinopathies. The data suggest that lysosomal dysregulation can contribute to brain region-specific protein aggregation and induce widespread neuroinflammation in the brain. However, only a few LSD models examined exhibited phenotypes consistent with synucleinopathies. While no model can recapitulate the complexity of PD, they can enable the study of specific pathways and mechanisms contributing to disease pathophysiology. The present study provides evidence that there are existing, previously unutilized mouse models that can be employed to study pathogenic mechanisms and gain insights into potential PD subtypes, helping to determine if they are amenable to pathway-specific therapeutic interventions.
Maud Wurmser, Mridula Muppavarapu, Christine Mary Tait, Christophe Laumonnerie, Luz María González-Castrillón, Sara Ivy Wilson, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 9, 2021
Sensory information relayed to the brain is dependent on complex, yet precise spatial organization of neurons. This anatomical complexity is generated during development from a surprisingly small number of neural stem cell domains. This raises the question of how neurons derived from a common precursor domain respond uniquely to their environment to elaborate correct spatial organization and connectivity. We addressed this question by exploiting genetically labeled mouse embryonic dorsal interneuron 1 (dI1) neurons that are derived from a common precursor domain and give rise to spinal projection neurons with distinct organization of cell bodies with axons projecting either commissurally (dI1c) or ipsilaterally (dI1i). In this study, we examined how the guidance receptor, Robo2, which is a canonical Robo receptor, influenced dI1 guidance during embryonic development. Robo2 was enriched in embryonic dI1i neurons, and loss of Robo2 resulted in misguidance of dI1i axons, whereas dI1c axons remained unperturbed within the mantle zone and ventral commissure. Further, Robo2 profoundly influenced dI1 cell body migration, a feature that was partly dependent on Slit2 signaling. These data suggest that dI1 neurons are dependent on Robo2 for their organization. This work integrated with the field support of a model whereby canonical Robo2 vs. non-canonical Robo3 receptor expression facilitates projection neurons derived from a common precursor domain to read out the tissue environment uniquely giving rise to correct anatomical organization.
Gemma Di Pompo, Costantino Errani, Robert Gillies, Laura Mercatali, Toni Ibrahim, Jacopo Tamanti, Nicola Baldini, Sofia Avnet, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 9, 2021
Bone metastasis (BM) is a dismal complication of cancer that frequently occurs in patients with advanced carcinomas and that often manifests as an osteolytic lesion. In bone, tumor cells promote an imbalance in bone remodeling via the release of growth factors that, directly or indirectly, stimulate osteoclast resorption activity. However, carcinoma cells are also characterized by an altered metabolism responsible for a decrease of extracellular pH, which, in turn, directly intensifies osteoclast bone erosion. Here, we speculated that tumor-derived acidosis causes the osteoblast–osteoclast uncoupling in BM by modulating the pro-osteoclastogenic phenotype of osteoblasts. According to our results, a low pH recruits osteoclast precursors and promotes their differentiation through the secretome of acid-stressed osteoblasts that includes pro-osteoclastogenic factors and inflammatory mediators, such as RANKL, M-CSF, TNF, IL-6, and, above the others, IL-8. The treatment with the anti-IL-6R antibody tocilizumab or with an anti-IL-8 antibody reverted this effect. Finally, in a series of BM patients, circulating levels of the osteolytic marker TRACP5b significantly correlated with IL-8. Our findings brought out that tumor-derived acidosis promotes excessive osteolysis at least in part by inducing an inflammatory phenotype in osteoblasts, and these results strengthen the use of anti-IL-6 or anti-IL-8 strategies to treat osteolysis in BM.
Tomoaki Shintani, Mirai Higaki, Tetsuji Okamoto, Cancers, 13, 2684 (11), 2021
Heparin-binding protein 17/fibroblast growth factor-binding protein-1 (HBp17/FGFBP-1) has been observed to induce the tumorigenic potential of epithelial cells and is highly expressed in oral cancer cell lines and tissues. It is also recognized as a pro-angiogenic molecule because of its interaction with fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. In this study, we examined the functional role of HBp17/FGFBP-1 in A431 and HO-1-N-1 cells. Originally, HBp17/FGFBP-1 was purified from A431 cell-conditioned media based on its capacity to bind to FGF-1 and FGF-2. We isolated and established HBp17/FGFBP-1-knockout (KO)-A431 and KO-HO-1-N-1 cell lines using the clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) gene editing technology. The amount of FGF-2 secreted into conditioned medium decreased for A431-HBp17-KO and HO-1-N-1-HBp17-KO cells compared to their WT counterparts. Functional assessment showed that HBp17/FGFBP-1 KO inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell motility in vitro. It also inhibited tumor growth in vivo compared to controls, which confirmed the significant difference in growth in vitro between HBp17-KO cells and wild-type (WT) cells, indicating that HBp17/FGFBP-1 is a potent therapeutic target in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). In addition, complementary DNA/protein expression analysis followed by Gene Ontology and protein–protein interaction (PPI) analysis using the Database for Visualization and Integrated Discovery and Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins showed that both gene and protein expression related to epidermal development, cornification, and keratinization were upregulated in A431-HBp17-KO and HO-1-N-1-KO cells. This is the first discovery of a novel role of HBp17/FGFBP-1 that regulates SCC and OSCC cell differentiation.
undefined Mazzotti, undefined Teti, undefined Falconi, undefined Chiarini, undefined Barboni, undefined Mazzotti, undefined Muttini, Cells, 8, 1116 (10), 2019
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that strongly correlates with age and promotes the breakdown of joint cartilage and subchondral bone. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues. It seems that MSCs derived from synovial joint tissues exhibit superior chondrogenic ability, but their unclear distribution and low frequency actually limit their clinical application. To date, the influence of aging on synovial joint derived MSCs’ biological characteristics and differentiation abilities remains unknown, and a full understanding of the mechanisms involved in cellular aging is lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the presence of age-related alterations in synovial fluid MSCs and their influence on the potential ability of MSCs to differentiate toward chondrogenic phenotypes. Synovial fluid MSCs, isolated from healthy equine donors from 3 to 40 years old, were cultured in vitro and stimulated towards chondrogenic differentiation for up to 21 days. An equine model was chosen due to the high degree of similarity of the anatomy of the knee joint to the human knee joint and as spontaneous disorders develop that are clinically relevant to similar human disorders. The results showed a reduction in cell proliferation correlated with age and the presence of age-related tetraploid cells. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated the presence of morphological features correlated with aging such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and mitophagy. Alcian blue assay and real-time PCR data showed a reduction of efficiency in the chondrogenic differentiation of aged synovial fluid MSCs compared to young MSCs. All these data highlighted the influence of aging on MSCs’ characteristics and ability to differentiate towards chondrogenic differentiation and emphasize the importance of considering age-related alterations of MSCs in clinical applications.
Kedar Ghimire, Yao Li, Takuto Chiba, Sohel M. Julovi, Jennifer Li, Mark A. Ross, Adam C. Straub, Philip J. O’Connell, Curzio Rüegg, Patrick J. Pagano, Jeffrey S. Isenberg, Natasha M. Rogers, Cells, 9, 1695 (7), 2020
The aged population is currently at its highest level in human history and is expected to increase further in the coming years. In humans, aging is accompanied by impaired angiogenesis, diminished blood flow and altered metabolism, among others. A cellular mechanism that impinges upon these manifestations of aging can be a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. Here we identify cell surface receptor CD47 as a novel age-sensitive driver of vascular and metabolic dysfunction. With the natural aging process, CD47 and its ligand thrombospondin-1 were increased, concurrent with a reduction of self-renewal transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and cMYC (OSKM) in arteries from aged wild-type mice and older human subjects compared to younger controls. These perturbations were prevented in arteries from aged CD47-null mice. Arterial endothelial cells isolated from aged wild-type mice displayed cellular exhaustion with decreased proliferation, migration and tube formation compared to cells from aged CD47-null mice. CD47 suppressed ex vivo sprouting, in vivo angiogenesis and skeletal muscle blood flow in aged wild-type mice. Treatment of arteries from older humans with a CD47 blocking antibody mitigated the age-related deterioration in angiogenesis. Finally, aged CD47-null mice were resistant to age- and diet-associated weight gain, glucose intolerance and insulin desensitization. These results indicate that the CD47-mediated signaling maladapts during aging to broadly impair endothelial self-renewal, angiogenesis, perfusion and glucose homeostasis. Our findings provide a strong rationale for therapeutically targeting CD47 to minimize these dysfunctions during aging.
Christina P. Martins, Lee A. New, Erin C. O’Connor, Dana M. Previte, Kasey R. Cargill, Isabelle L. Tse, Sunder Sims- Lucas, Jon D. Piganelli, Frontiers in Immunology, 12, 2021
In Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), CD4+ T cells initiate autoimmune attack of pancreatic islet β cells. Importantly, bioenergetic programs dictate T cell function, with specific pathways required for progression through the T cell lifecycle. During activation, CD4+ T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to the less efficient aerobic glycolysis, similarly to highly proliferative cancer cells. In an effort to limit tumor growth in cancer, use of glycolytic inhibitors have been successfully employed in preclinical and clinical studies. This strategy has also been utilized to suppress T cell responses in autoimmune diseases like Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). However, modulating T cell metabolism in the context of T1D has remained an understudied therapeutic opportunity. In this study, we utilized the small molecule PFK15, a competitive inhibitor of the rate limiting glycolysis enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6- biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3). Our results confirmed PFK15 inhibited glycolysis utilization by diabetogenic CD4+ T cells and reduced T cell responses to β cell antigen in vitro. In an adoptive transfer model of T1D, PFK15 treatment delayed diabetes onset, with 57% of animals remaining euglycemic at the end of the study period. Protection was due to induction of a hyporesponsive T cell phenotype, characterized by increased and sustained expression of the checkpoint molecules PD-1 and LAG-3 and downstream functional and metabolic exhaustion. Glycolysis inhibition terminally exhausted diabetogenic CD4+ T cells, which was irreversible through restimulation or checkpoint blockade in vitro and in vivo. In sum, our results demonstrate a novel therapeutic strategy to control aberrant T cell responses by exploiting the metabolic reprogramming of these cells during T1D. Moreover, the data presented here highlight a key role for nutrient availability in fueling T cell function and has implications in our understanding of T cell biology in chronic infection, cancer, and autoimmunity.
Gergő Józsa, Vince Szegeczki, Andrea Pálfi, Tamás Kiss, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Balázs Fülöp, Csaba Cserháti, Lajos Daróczi, Andrea Tamás, Róza Zákány, Dóra Reglődi, Tamás Juhász, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19, 2538 (9), 2018
: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with diverse developmental roles, including differentiation of skeletal elements. It is a positive regulatory factor of chondrogenesis and osteogenic differentiation in vitro, but little is known about its in vivo role in bone formation. In our experiments, diaphyses of long bones from hind limbs of PACAP gene-deficient mice showed changes in thickness and increased staining intensity. Our main goal was to perform a detailed morphological and molecular biological analysis of femurs from PACAP knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. Transverse diameter and anterior cortical bone thickness of KO femurs showed significant alterations with disturbed Ca2+ accumulation and collagen type I expression. Higher expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase were also observed, accompanied by increased fragility PACAP KO femurs. Increased expression of the elements of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and hedgehog signalling was also observed, and are possibly responsible for the compensation mechanism accounting for the slight morphological changes. In summary, our results show that lack of PACAP influences molecular and biomechanical properties of bone matrix, activating various signalling cascade changes in a compensatory fashion. The increased fragility of PACAP KO femur further supports the role of endogenous PACAP in in vivo bone formation.
Cristina Cattò, Francesco Secundo, Garth James, Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19, 4003 (12), 2018
The protease α-chymotrypsin (α-CT) was covalently immobilized on a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) surface, providing a new non-leaching material (LDPE-α-CT) able to preserve surfaces from biofilm growth over a long working timescale. The immobilized enzyme showed a transesterification activity of 1.24 nmol/h, confirming that the immobilization protocol did not negatively affect α-CT activity. Plate count viability assays, as well as confocal laser scanner microscopy (CLSM) analysis, showed that LDPE-α-CT significantly impacts Escherichia coli biofilm formation by (i) reducing the number of adhered cells (−70.7 ± 5.0%); (ii) significantly affecting biofilm thickness (−81.8 ± 16.7%), roughness (−13.8 ± 2.8%), substratum coverage (−63.1 ± 1.8%), and surface to bio-volume ratio (+7.1 ± 0.2-fold); and (iii) decreasing the matrix polysaccharide bio-volume (80.2 ± 23.2%). Additionally, CLSM images showed a destabilized biofilm with many cells dispersing from it. Notably, biofilm stained for live and dead cells confirmed that the reduction in the biomass was achieved by a mechanism that did not affect bacterial viability, reducing the chances for the evolution of resistant strains.
Eszter Szentléleky, Vince Szegeczki, Edina Karanyicz, Tibor Hajdú, Andrea Tamás, Gábor Tóth, Róza Zákány, Dóra Reglődi, Tamás Juhász, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20, 168 (1), 2019
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide also secreted by non-neural cells, including chondrocytes. PACAP signaling is involved in the regulation of chondrogenesis, but little is known about its connection to matrix turnover during cartilage formation and under cellular stress in developing cartilage. We found that the expression and activity of hyaluronidases (Hyals), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), and aggrecanase were permanent during the course of chondrogenesis in primary chicken micromass cell cultures, although protein levels changed daily, along with moderate and relatively constant enzymatic activity. Next, we investigated whether PACAP influences matrix destructing enzyme activity during oxidative and mechanical stress in chondrogenic cells. Exogenous PACAP lowered Hyals and aggrecanase expression and activity during cellular stress. Expression and activation of the majority of cartilage matrix specific MMPs such as MMP1, MMP7, MMP8, and MMP13, were also decreased by PACAP addition upon oxidative and mechanical stress, while the activity of MMP9 seemed not to be influenced by the neuropeptide. These results suggest that application of PACAP can help to preserve the integrity of the newly synthetized cartilage matrix via signaling mechanisms, which ultimately inhibit the activity of matrix destroying enzymes under cellular stress. It implies the prospect that application of PACAP can ameliorate articular cartilage destruction in joint diseases.
Wannit Tongkao-on, Chen Yang, Bianca Y. McCarthy, Warusavithana G. Manori De Silva, Mark S. Rybchyn, Clare Gordon-Thomson, Katie M. Dixon, Gary M. Halliday, Vivienne E. Reeve, Rebecca S. Mason, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22, 1962 (4), 2021
Susceptibility to photoimmune suppression and photocarcinogenesis is greater in male than in female humans and mice and is exacerbated in female estrogen receptor-beta knockout (ER-β−/−) mice. We previously reported that the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D), applied topically protects against the ultraviolet radiation (UV) induction of cutaneous cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in female mice. Here, we compare these responses in female versus male Skh:hr1 mice, in ER-β−/−/−− versus wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and in female ER-blockaded Skh:hr1 mice. The induction of CPDs was significantly greater in male than female Skh:hr1 mice and was more effectively reduced by 1,25(OH)2D in female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice than in male Skh:hr1 or ER-β−/− mice, respectively. This correlated with the reduced sunburn inflammation due to 1,25(OH)2D in female but not male Skh:hr1 mice. Furthermore, although 1,25(OH)2D alone dose-dependently suppressed basal CHS responses in male Skh:hr1 and ER-β−/− mice, UV-induced immunosuppression was universally observed. In female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice, the immunosuppression was decreased by 1,25(OH)2D dose-dependently, but not in male Skh:hr1, ER-β−/−, or ER-blockaded mice. These results reveal a sex bias in genetic, inflammatory, and immune photoprotection by 1,25(OH)2D favoring female mice that is dependent on the presence of ER-β.
Marta Hałas-Wiśniewska, Wioletta Zielińska, Magdalena Izdebska, Alina Grzanka, Molecules, 25, 3045 (13), 2020
Background: Cancers are one of the leading causes of deaths nowadays. The development of new treatment schemes for oncological diseases is an interesting direction in experimental medicine. Therefore, the evaluation of the influence of two alkaloids—piperlongumine (PL), sanguinarine (SAN) and their combination—on the basic life processes of the A549 cell line was considered reasonable. Methods: The aim was achieved by analyzing the cytotoxic effects of PL and SAN and their combination in the ratio of 4:1 on the induction of cell death, changes in the distribution of cell cycle phases, reorganization of cytoskeleton and metastatic potential of A549 cells. The versatility of the applied concentration ratio was evaluated in terms of other cancer cell lines: MCF-7, H1299 and HepG2. Results: The results obtained from the MTT assay indicated that the interaction between the alkaloids depends on the concentration and type of cells. Additionally, the compounds and their combination did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect against normal cells. The combined effects of PL and SAN increased apoptosis and favored metastasis inhibition. Conclusion: Selected alkaloids exhibit a cytotoxic effect on A549 cells. In turn, treatment with the combination of PL and SAN in a 4:1 ratio indicates a synergistic effect and is associated with an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Natale Belluardo, Giuseppa Mudò, Valentina Di Liberto, Monica Frinchi, Daniele F. Condorelli, Ugo Traversa, Francisco Ciruela, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio, Patricia Giuliani, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 12, 2021
Neuroblastoma arises from neural crest cell precursors failing to complete the process of differentiation. Thus, agents helping tumor cells to differentiate into normal cells can represent a valid therapeutic strategy. Here, we evaluated whether guanosine (GUO), a natural purine nucleoside, which is able to induce differentiation of many cell types, may cause the differentiation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and the molecular mechanisms involved. We found that GUO, added to the cell culture medium, promoted neuron-like cell differentiation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was mainly due to an extracellular GUO action since nucleoside transporter inhibitors reduced but not abolished it. Importantly, GUO-mediated neuron-like cell differentiation was independent of adenosine receptor activation as it was not altered by the blockade of these receptors. Noteworthy, the neuritogenic activity of GUO was not affected by blocking the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway, while it was reduced by inhibitors of protein kinase C or soluble guanylate cyclase. Furthermore, the inhibitor of the enzyme heme oxygenase-1 but not that of nitric oxide synthase reduced GUO-induced neurite outgrowth. Interestingly, we found that GUO was largely metabolized into guanine by the purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) enzyme released from cells. Taken together, our results suggest that GUO, promoting neuroblastoma cell differentiation, may represent a potential therapeutic agent; however, due to its spontaneous extracellular metabolism, the role played by the GUO-PNP-guanine system needs to be further investigated.
Alexander Omelyanchik, Valentina Antipova, Christina Gritsenko, Valeria Kolesnikova, Dmitry Murzin, Yilin Han, Andrei V. Turutin, Ilya V. Kubasov, Alexander M. Kislyuk, Tatiana S. Ilina, Dmitry A. Kiselev, Marina I. Voronova, Mikhail D. Malinkovich, Yuriy N. Parkhomenko, Maxim Silibin, Elena N. Kozlova, Davide Peddis, Kateryna Levada, Liudmila Makarova, Abdulkarim Amirov, Valeria Rodionova, Nanomaterials, 11, 1154 (5), 2021
Polymer-based magnetoelectric composite materials have attracted a lot of attention due to their high potential in various types of applications as magnetic field sensors, energy harvesting, and biomedical devices. Current researches are focused on the increase in the efficiency of magnetoelectric transformation. In this work, a new strategy of arrangement of clusters of magnetic nanoparticles by an external magnetic field in PVDF and PFVD-TrFE matrixes is proposed to increase the voltage coefficient (αME) of the magnetoelectric effect. Another strategy is the use of 3-component composites through the inclusion of piezoelectric BaTiO3 particles. Developed strategies allow us to increase the αME value from ~5 mV/cm·Oe for the composite of randomly distributed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in PVDF matrix to ~18.5 mV/cm·Oe for a composite of magnetic particles in PVDF-TrFE matrix with 5%wt of piezoelectric particles. The applicability of such materials as bioactive surface is demonstrated on neural crest stem cell cultures.
Yanbei Wu, Qiang He, Liangli Yu, Quynhchi Pham, Lumei Cheung, Young S. Kim, Thomas T. Y. Wang, Allen D. Smith, Nutrients, 12, 917 (4), 2020
Intestinal inflammation is associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer and may result from dysregulated responses to commensal bacteria or exposure to bacterial pathogens. Dietary modulation of intestinal inflammation may protect against development of colon cancer. However, the precise diet-derived components and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Citrobacter rodentium (Cr) induces acute intestinal inflammation and has been used to study the role of inflammation in the susceptibility to colon cancer. Here we examine the effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a dietary compound with anticarcinogenic properties, on intestinal immune and inflammatory responses to Cr infection and adhesion to colonic cells in vitro. C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet with/without 1 μmol/g I3C and infected with Cr. Compared to infected mice fed with a control diet, consumption of a 1 μmol I3C/g diet significantly reduced fecal excretion of Cr, Cr colonization of the colon, and reduced colon crypt hyperplasia. Furthermore, expression of Cr-induced inflammatory markers such as IL-17A, IL-6, and IL1β were attenuated in infected mice fed with the I3C diet, compared to mice fed a control diet. The expression of cytotoxic T cell markers CD8 and FasL mRNA were increased in I3C-fed infected mice. In-vitro, I3C inhibited Cr growth and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. I3C alleviates Cr-induced murine colitis through multiple mechanisms including inhibition of Cr growth and adhesion to colonic cells in vitro and enhancement of cytotoxic T cell activity.
Rosa Calvello, Antonia Cianciulli, Chiara Porro, Piergianni Moda, Francesco De Nuccio, Giuseppe Nicolardi, Laura Giannotti, Maria Antonietta Panaro, Dario Domenico Lofrumento, Nutrients, 13, 1418 (5), 2021
Among therapeutic approaches that have been investigated, targeting of receptors implicated in managing neuroinflammation has been described. One such family of receptors comprises the formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) whose ligands could play a role in host defense. The murine FPR gene family includes at least six members while in humans there are only three. The two most important members are the Fpr1 and Fpr2. Fpr1encodes murine FPR1, which is considered the murine orthologue of human FPR. Resveratrol, a non-flavonoid polyphenol rich in red wine and grapes, apart from its beneficial health effects and anti-inflammatory properties, has been reported to reduce neuroinflammation in different neurodegenerative disease models. Resveratrol anti-inflammatory responses involve the activation of the protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) gene. In this work we have investigated in an LPS-based murine model of neuroinflammation the role of FPR1, examining not only if this receptor undergoes a reduction of its expression during neuroinflammation, but also whether treatment with resveratrol was able to modulate its expression leading to an amelioration of neuroinflammatory picture in a murine model of neuroinflammation. Results of this work showed that FPR1 together with SIRT1 resulted upregulated by resveratrol treatment and that this increase is associated with an amelioration of the neuroinflammatory picture, as demonstrated by the induction of IL-10 and IL1-RA expression and the downregulation of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and IL-1β. The expression and the modulation of FPR1 by resveratrol may be evaluated in order to propose a novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving therapeutic approach for the reduction of the detrimental effects associated with neuro-inflammation based neurodegenerative diseases and also as a promising strategy to promote human health by a diet rich in antioxidative bioactive compounds.
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