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This model was found at
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About the Nikon Eclipse E600

The model Nikon Eclipse E600 was found in 2120 unique locations in 59 countries where it was mentioned from 2000 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Molecular Biology, General Medicine, Cell Biology, Genetics, and Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience. The model is also used in General Neuroscience, Biochemistry, Cancer Research, Immunology, Microbiology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Oncology, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Physiology, Neurology (clinical), Immunology and Allergy, Molecular Medicine, Developmental Biology, Pharmacology, Neurology, Biomedical Engineering, Biomaterials, Biophysics, General Materials Science, Biotechnology, Bioengineering, General Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, and Animal Science and Zoology.
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Research that uses the Nikon Eclipse E600

Cédric Duval, Adomas Baranauskas, Tímea Feller, Majid Ali, Lih T. Cheah, Nadira Y. Yuldasheva, Stephen R. Baker, Helen R. McPherson, Zaher Raslan, Marc A. Bailey, Richard M. Cubbon, Simon D. Connell, Ramzi A. Ajjan, Helen Philippou, Khalid M. Naseem, Victoria C. Ridger, Robert A. S. Ariëns, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118, 2021
Significance Pulmonary embolism and stroke are thromboembolic diseases affecting >1 million people annually worldwide. Thromboembolism involves clot fragments affecting vital downstream organs such as the lung or brain. The mechanisms underpinning thromboembolism are not understood and require clarification in order to devise more effective treatments. Here, we developed a thromboembolism protocol supported by state-of-the-art in vivo imaging, coupled to a genetically modified murine model of reduced clot strength caused by mutations in the cross-linking sites of fibrin, which provides the mechanical scaffold of the clot. We find that fibrin γ-chain cross-linking is essential for clot stability and reduces embolism. These findings introduce an important concept indicating that maintenance of clot stability during thrombosis treatment is essential to prevent thromboembolism.
Seiya Nagae, Kazuki Sato, Tsutomu Tanabe, Koichi Hasegawa, 2020
Abstract BackgroundHow various host-parasite combinations have been established is an important question in evolutionary biology. We have previously described two nematode species, Rhigonema naylae and Travassosinema claudiae, which are parasites of the Xystodesmidae millipede Parafontaria laminata in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Rhigonematoidea belongs to the infraorder Rhigonematomorpha and is phylogenetically close to the Ascaridomorpha, which includes the roundworm parasite in animals. Thelastomatoidea spp. belong to the infraorder Oxyuridomorpha, which comprises a wide variety of parasites in many vertebrates and invertebrates. These nematodes were isolated together with high prevalence; however, the phylogenetic, evolutionary, and ecological relationships between these two parasitic nematodes and between host-parasites are not well known.ResultsWe collected nine species (11 isolates) of Xystodesmidae millipede from seven different locations in Japan and found that all species were co-infected with the parasitic nematodes Rhigonematoidea spp. and Thelastomatoidea spp. Rhigonematoidea spp. is exclusively a millipede parasite, and combinations of parasitic nematode groups and host genera seem to be fixed, supporting the hypothesis of their co-speciation. Intriguingly, Thelastomatoidea spp. were isolated, and the host-parasite relationship was not clarified, clearly indicating the broad host range of these nematode groups. Although the infection prevalence and population of Rhigonematoidea spp. were higher than those of Thelastomatoidea spp., these parasites were not competitive. The population of Rhigonematoidea spp. was not negatively affected by co-infection with Thelastomatoidea spp.ConclusionsPhylogenetic analysis supported our hypothesis that, during the evolution of parasitic nematode diversity in millipedes, the Rhigonematoidea spp. first established relationships with millipedes and were followed by the Thelastomatoidea spp.. The ancestor of the latter nematode might have moved from other host arthropods such as cockroaches.
Teerapong Seesamut, Daichi Yano, Jose Paitio, Ikuhiko Kin, Somsak Panha, Yuichi Oba, 2020
Abstract Pontodrilus litoralis is a cosmopolitan littoral earthworm known to exhibit bioluminescence. Recently, a congeneric species Pontodrilus longissimus from Thailand was described. These species are sympatric but their burrowing depths on Thai beaches are different. In this study, we examined the in vivo and in vitro bioluminescence properties of P. longissimus and P. litoralis. Mechanical stimulation induced in vivo luminescence in P. litoralis, as reported previously, but not in P. longissimus. In vitro cross-reaction tests between these species revealed the absence of luciferin and luciferase activities in P. longissimus. P. litoralis had strong fluorescence in a coelomic fluid that matches to the spectral maximum of its bioluminescence, but P. longissimus did not. These results suggest that P. longissimus does not have luminescence ability due to the lack of all bioluminescent components, luciferin, luciferase, and light emitter, despite its close relationship to the luminous P. litoralis. The presence of both luminous and non-luminous species in a single genus is uncommon, and our present findings will shed insight on the possible functions of bioluminescence in the earthworm, such as avoiding predation by littoral earwigs.
Ming-Kai Hsieh, Chia-Jung Wu, Chi-Yun Wang, Tsung-Ting Tsai, Chi-Chien Niu, Po-Liang Lai, Shinn-Chih Wu, 2020
Abstract BackgroundWidely used in recent years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) can be tracked during migration to injury sites, while also supporting tri-lineage differentiation. However, the relationship between the expression of green fluorescence and the magnitude of osteogenic differentiation is not clearly defined. Despite increasing use of eGFP-MSCs derived from the transgenic pigs and non-viral eGFP plasmid transfected MSCs in recent years, it remains unclear which cells are suitable for tracking during osteogenic differentiation, and whether the transfected plasmid alters osteogenic potential.MethodsWe compared the expression of green fluorescence and the magnitude of osteogenic differentiation between eGFP MSCs from a transgenic pig (group 1) and non-virally transfected eGFP-MSCs using transIT®-2020 (group 2). Non-transfected MSCs were used as control group (group 3). We also use a scaffold to compare the osteogenic induction environments created by 2-D monolayer cultures and 3-D cultures, respectivelyResultsIn the monolayer culture, flow cytometry from day 7 to day 28 showed that the percentage of green fluorescent cells in groups 1 and 2 were 99.6% and 59.7% of total cell counts, respectively. Quantification showed that eGFP expression peaked on day 7, decreased after day 14, and plateaued to day 28 in group 1 and group 2. Significant aggregation of eGFP over bone-like nodules was appreciated in group 1. In 3-D culture, eGFP expression increased from day 7 to day 28 in both groups, and was higher in group 1 than in group 2 at each time point. Osteogenic profiles and immunohistochemistry showed more significant osteogenic activity in group 1 and group 3 than in group 2. ConclusionsThe expression of eGFP in the test groups did not significantly change after osteogenic induction. However, quantification data was different in monolayer and 3-D cultures due to spatial limitations, differing extracellular environments, and heterogeneous cell morphology and methods of division. Osteogenic profiles and immunohistochemistry data confirmed that osteogenic potential did not change in transgenic pig-derived MSCs. However osteogenic potential decreased in pig MSCs (pig MSCs) treated with the transfection reagent, likely from related toxicity.
Jinju Wang, Venkata Polaki, Shuzhen Chen, Ji C. Bihl, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2020, 1-12, 2020
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), a type of adipose tissue that surrounds the blood vessels, has been considered an active component of the blood vessel walls and involved in vascular homeostasis. Recent evidence shows that increased inflammation and oxidative stress in PVAT contribute to endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Exercise is an important nonpharmacological approach for vascular diseases. However, there is limited information regarding whether the beneficial effects of exercise on vascular function is related to the PVAT status. In this study, we investigated whether exercise can decrease oxidative stress and inflammation of PVAT and promote the improvement of endothelial function in a T2D mouse model. Diabetic db/db (5-week old) mice performed treadmill exercise (10 m/min) or keep sedentary for 8 weeks. Body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, glucose, and insulin tolerance were determined. The cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-a) and adiponectin levels, macrophage polarization and adipocyte type in PVAT, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide (NO) expression in the vascular wall were evaluated. The adhesion ability of primary aorta endothelial cells was analyzed. Our data showed that (1) diabetic db/db mice had increased body weight and fasting blood glucose level, compromised glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, which were decreased/improved by exercise intervention. (2) Exercise intervention increased the percentage of multilocular brown adipocytes, promoted M1 to M2 macrophage polarization, associating with an increase of adiponectin and IL-10 levels and decrease of IFN-γ, IL-6, and TNF-a levels in PVAT. (3) Exercise decreased superoxide production in PVAT and the vascular wall of diabetic mice, accompanied with increased NO level. (4) The adhesion ability of aorta endothelial cells to leukocytes was decreased in exercised db/db mice, accompanied by decreased intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expressions. Of interesting, coculture with PVAT-culture medium from exercised db/db mice could also reduce ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in primary endothelial cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that exercise improved endothelial function by attenuating the inflammation and oxidative stress in PVAT.
Carolina de O Mendes-Aguiar, Camilla Lopes-Siqueira, Fabrício Pettito-Assis, Márcia Pereira-Oliveira, Manoel Paes de Oliveira-Neto, Claude Pirmez, Alda Maria Da-Cruz, Hiro Goto, Journal of Immunology Research, 2021, 1-7, 2021
Background. Cytokines and growth factors involved in the tissue inflammatory process influence the outcome of Leishmania infection. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) constitutively present in the skin may participate in the inflammatory process and parasite-host interaction. Previous work has shown that preincubation of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis with recombinant IGF-I induces accelerated lesion development. However, in human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) pathogenesis, it is more relevant to the persistent inflammatory process than progressive parasite proliferation. In this context, we aimed to investigate whether IGF-I was present in the CL lesions and if this factor may influence the lesions’ development acting on parasite growth and/or on the inflammatory/healing process. Methodology. Fifty-one CL patients’ skin lesion samples from endemic area of L. (Viannia) braziliensis infection were submitted to histopathological analysis and searched for Leishmania and IGF-I expression by immunohistochemistry. Results. In human CL lesions, IGF-I was observed preferentially in the late lesion (more than 90 days), and the percentage of positive area for IGF-I was positively correlated with duration of illness ( r = 0.42 , P < 0.05 ). IGF-I was highly expressed in the inflammatory infiltrate of CL lesions from patients evolving with good response to therapy ( 2.8 % ± 2.1 % ; median = 2.1 % ; n = 18 ) than poor responders ( 1.3 % ± 1.1 % ; median: 1.05%; n = 6 ; P < 0.05 ). Conclusions. It is the first time that IGF-I was detected in lesions of infectious cutaneous disease, specifically in American tegumentary leishmaniasis. IGF-I was related to chronicity and good response to treatment. We may relate this finding to the efficient anti-inflammatory response and the known action of IGF-I in wound repair. The present data highlight the importance of searching nonspecific factors besides adaptive immune elements in the study of leishmaniasis’ pathogenesis.
Brian P. Johnson, Ross A. Vitek, Molly M. Morgan, Dustin M. Fink, Tyler G. Beames, Peter G. Geiger, David J. Beebe, Robert J. Lipinski, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 9, 2021
Paracrine signaling in the tissue microenvironment is a central mediator of morphogenesis, and modeling this dynamic intercellular activity in vitro is critical to understanding normal and abnormal development. For example, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is a conserved mechanism involved in multiple developmental processes and strongly linked to human birth defects including orofacial clefts of the lip and palate. SHH ligand produced, processed, and secreted from the epithelial ectoderm is shuttled through the extracellular matrix where it binds mesenchymal receptors, establishing a gradient of transcriptional response that drives orofacial morphogenesis. In humans, complex interactions of genetic predispositions and environmental insults acting on diverse molecular targets are thought to underlie orofacial cleft etiology. Consequently, there is a need for tractable in vitro approaches that model this complex cellular and environmental interplay and are sensitive to disruption across the multistep signaling cascade. We developed a microplate-based device that supports an epithelium directly overlaid onto an extracellular matrix-embedded mesenchyme, mimicking the basic tissue architecture of developing orofacial tissues. SHH ligand produced from the epithelium generated a gradient of SHH-driven transcription in the adjacent mesenchyme, recapitulating the gradient of pathway activity observed in vivo. Shh pathway activation was antagonized by small molecule inhibitors of epithelial secretory, extracellular matrix transport, and mesenchymal sensing targets, supporting the use of this approach in high-content chemical screening of the complete Shh pathway. Together, these findings demonstrate a novel and practical microphysiological model with broad utility for investigating epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and environmental signaling disruptions in development.
Huilan Wei, Wanru Li, Tian Liu, Yajuan Li, Liangjie Liu, Ya Shu, Lijing Zhang, Shi Wang, Qiang Xing, Lingling Zhang, Zhenmin Bao, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 9, 2021
Simultaneous or functional hermaphrodites possessing both ovary and testis at the same time are good materials for studying sexual development. However, previous research on sex determination and differentiation was mainly conducted in gonochoristic species and studies on simultaneous hermaphrodites are still limited. In this study, we conducted a combined morphological, endocrine and molecular study on the gonadal development of a hermaphroditic scallop Argopecten irradians aged 2–10 month old. Morphological analysis showed that sex differentiation occurred at 6 months of age. By examining the dynamic changes of progesterone, testosterone and estradiol, we found testosterone and estradiol were significantly different between the ovaries and testes almost throughout the whole process, suggesting the two hormones may be involved in scallop sex differentiation. In addition, we identified two critical sex-related genes FoxL2 and Dmrt1L, and investigated their spatiotemporal expression patterns. Results showed that FoxL2 and Dmrt1L were female- and male-biased, respectively, and mainly localized in the germ cells and follicular cells, indicating their feasibility as molecular markers for early identification of sex. Further analysis on the changes of FoxL2 and Dmrt1L expression in juveniles showed that significant sexual dimorphic expression of FoxL2 occurred at 2 months of age, earlier than that of Dmrt1L. Moreover, FoxL2 expression was significantly correlated with estradiol/testosterone ratio (E2/T). All these results indicated that molecular sex differentiation occurs earlier than morphological sex differentiation, and FoxL2 may be a key driver that functions through regulating sex steroid hormones in the scallop. This study will deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying sex differentiation and development in spiralians.
Mauricio Barbi, Phil R. Bell, Federico Fanti, James J. Dynes, Anezka Kolaceke, Josef Buttigieg, Ian M. Coulson, Philip J. Currie, PeerJ, 7, e7875, 2019
Preserved labile tissues (e.g., skin, muscle) in the fossil record of terrestrial vertebrates are increasingly becoming recognized as an important source of biological and taphonomic information. Here, we combine a variety of synchrotron radiation techniques with scanning electron and optical microscopy to elucidate the structure of 72 million-year-old squamous (scaly) skin from a hadrosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada. Scanning electron and optical microscopy independently reveal that the three-dimensionally preserved scales are associated with a band of carbon-rich layers up to a total thickness of ∼75 microns, which is topographically and morphologically congruent with the stratum corneum in modern reptiles. Compositionally, this band deviates from that of the surrounding sedimentary matrix; Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and soft X-ray spectromicroscopy analyses indicate that carbon appears predominantly as carbonyl in the skin. The regions corresponding to the integumentary layers are distinctively enriched in iron compared to the sedimentary matrix and appear with kaolinite-rich laminae. These hosting carbonyl-rich layers are apparently composed of subcircular bodies resembling preserved cell structures. Each of these structures is encapsulated by calcite/vaterite, with iron predominantly concentrated at its center. The presence of iron, calcite/vaterite and kaolinite may, independently or collectively, have played important roles in the preservation of the layered structures.
Paulina Janik, Michał Ronikier, Anna Ronikier, PeerJ, 8, e8406, 2020
Herbarium collections provide an essential basis for a wide array of biological research and, with development of DNA-based methods, they have become an invaluable material for genetic analyses. Yet, the use of such material is hindered by technical limitations related to DNA degradation and to quantity of biological material. The latter is inherent for some biological groups, as best exemplified by myxomycetes which form minute sporophores. It is estimated that ca. two-thirds of myxomycete taxa are represented by extremely scanty material. As DNA isolation methods applied so far in myxomycete studies require destructive sampling of many sporophores, a large part of described diversity of the group remains unavailable for phylogenetic studies or barcoding. Here, we tested several procedures of DNA isolation and amplification to seek for an efficient and possibly non-destructive method of sampling. Tests were based on herbarium specimens of 19 species representing different taxonomic orders. We assayed several variants of isolation based on silica gel membrane columns, and a newly designed procedure using highly reduced amount of biological material (small portion of spores), based on fine disruption of spores and direct PCR. While the most frequently used column-based method led to PCR success in 89.5% of samples when a large amount of material was used, its performance dropped to 52% when based on single sporophores. Single sporophores provided amplicons in 89.5% of samples when using a kit dedicated to low-amount DNA samples. Our new procedure appeared the most effective (94.7%) while it used only a small fraction of spores, being nearly non-destructive; it was also the most cost-effective. We thus demonstrate that combination of adequate handling of spore micro-disruption coupled with application of direct PCR can be an efficient way to circumvent technical limitations for genetic studies in myxomycetes and thus can substantially improve taxon sampling for phylogeny and barcoding. Additionally, this approach gives a unique possibility to apply both molecular and morphological assays to the same structure (sporophore), which then can be further stored as documentation.
Mohamed Mohany, Ahmed Z. Alanazi, Faleh Alqahtani, Osamah M. Belali, Mohammed M. Ahmed, Salim S. Al-Rejaie, PeerJ, 8, e9196, 2020
BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy (DN) is among the most common microvascular complications of diabetes resulting in end-stage renal disease and therefore search for candidates which can ameliorate the kidney function is needed simultaneously with standard diabetic pharmacotherapy. The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of long term sacubitril/valsartan therapy (LCZ696) in diabetic rats to assess its ameliorative impact against various pathological parameters such as oxidative stress, inflammation and glomerulosclerosis associated with chronic DN.MethodsA single dose (60 mg/kg/day) of STZ was used to induce type 1 diabetes in adult male wistar rats. 2 weeks after diabetes induction, these rats were treated orally with valsartan (31 mg/kg) or LCZ696 (68 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. At end of the treatment period, serum and kidney samples were collected and analyzed. The serum levels of glucose, insulin, urea, creatinine, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were estimated. In renal tissue homogenate, the levels of inflammatory markers such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NF-kB along with oxidative stress biomarkers including thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARs), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assessed. Histological changes were observed in kidney.ResultsTime course therapy withLCZ696 and valsartan in diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction of serum glucose, urea and creatinine levels (P < 0.05). Additionally, serum of treated diabetic rats showed a diminution in inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and increment in anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines levels (P < 0.05). Tissue homogenate of the kidney extracted from LCZ696 and valsartan treated diabetic rats revealed a substantial reduction in the levels of inflammatory markers such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NF-kB and sufficient restoration of anti-oxidant enzyme levels (P < 0.05). Finally, in the histological sections of the kidney, prevention of renal injury was observed with limited necrosis and inflammatory cells infiltration.ConclusionPresent data suggest that LCZ696 has sufficient therapeutic potential to restrict DN progression through inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and glomerulosclerosis.
Martin L. Johansson, Tim G.A. Calon, Omar Omar, Furqan A. Shah, Margarita Trobos, Peter Thomsen, Robert J. Stokroos, Anders Palmquist, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 11, 2021
Osseointegration is a well-established concept used in applications including the percutaneous Bone-Anchored Hearing System (BAHS) and auricular rehabilitation. To date, few retrieved implants have been described. A systematic review including cases where percutaneous bone-anchored implants inserted in the temporal bone were retrieved and analyzed was performed. We also present the case of a patient who received a BAHS for mixed hearing loss. After the initial surgery, several episodes of soft tissue inflammation accompanied by pain were observed, leading to elective abutment removal 14 months post-surgery. Two years post-implantation, the implant was removed due to pain and subjected to a multiscale and multimodal analysis: microbial DNA using molecular fingerprinting, gene expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), histology, histomorphometry, backscattered scanning electron microscopy (BSE-SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Evidence of osseointegration was provided via micro-CT, histology, BSE-SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. Polymicrobial colonization in the periabutment area and on the implant, including that with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, was determined using a molecular analysis via a 16S-23S rDNA interspace [IS]-region-based profiling method (IS-Pro). The histology suggested bacterial colonization in the skin and in the peri-implant bone. FISH confirmed the localization of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci in the skin. Ten articles (54 implants, 47 patients) met the inclusion criteria for the literature search. The analyzed samples were either BAHS (35 implants) or bone-anchored aural epitheses (19 implants) in situ between 2 weeks and 8 years. The main reasons for elective removal were nonuse/changes in treatment, pain, or skin reactions. Most samples were evaluated using histology, demonstrating osseointegration, but with the absence of bone under the implants’ proximal flange. Taken together, the literature and this case report show clear evidence of osseointegration, despite prominent complications. Nevertheless, despite implant osseointegration, chronic pain related to the BAHS may be associated with a chronic bacterial infection and raised inflammatory response in the absence of macroscopic signs of infection. It is suggested that a multimodal analysis of peri-implant health provides possibilities for device improvements and to guide diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to alleviate the impact of complications.
Arkadiusz D. Liśkiewicz, Łukasz Marczak, Katarzyna Bogus, Daniela Liśkiewicz, Marta Przybyła, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik, Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12, 2021
Obesity cardiomyopathy increases the risk of heart failure and death. Obesity is curable, leading to the restoration of the heart phenotype, but it is not clear if there are any after-effects of obesity present after weight loss. We characterize the proteomic landscape of obesity cardiomyopathy with an evaluation of whether the cardiac phenotype is still shaped after weight loss. Cardiomyopathy was validated by cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, oversized myocytes, and mTOR upregulation in a rat model of cafeteria diet-induced developmental obesity. By global proteomic techniques (LC-MS/MS) a plethora of molecular changes was observed in the heart and circulation of obese animals, suggesting abnormal utilization of metabolic substrates. This was confirmed by increased levels of cardiac ACSL-1, a key enzyme for fatty acid degradation and decreased GLUT-1, a glucose transporter in obese rats. Calorie restriction and weight loss led to the normalization of the heart’s size, but fibrosis was still excessive. The proteomic compositions of cardiac tissue and plasma were different after weight loss as compared to control. In addition to morphological consequences, obesity cardiomyopathy involves many proteomic changes. Weight loss provides for a partial repair of the heart’s architecture, but the trace of fibrotic deposition and proteomic alterations may occur.
Katelyn V. Batterman, Payton E. Cabrera, Tara L. Moore, Douglas L. Rosene, Frontiers in Immunology, 12, 2021
Normal aging is characterized by declines in processing speed, learning, memory, and executive function even in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In normal aging monkeys and humans, neuronal loss does not account for cognitive impairment. Instead, loss of white matter volume and an accumulation of myelin sheath pathology begins in middle age and is associated with cognitive decline. It is unknown what causes this myelin pathology, but it likely involves increased neuroinflammation in white matter and failures in oligodendrocyte function (maturation and repair). In frontal white matter tracts vulnerable to myelin damage, microglia become chronically reactive and secrete harmful pro-inflammatory cytokines. Despite being in a phagocytic state, these microglia are ineffective at phagocytosing accruing myelin debris, which directly inhibits myelin sheath repair. Here, we asked whether reported age-related increases in pro-inflammatory markers were accompanied by an adaptive immune response involving T cells. We quantified T cells with immunohistochemistry in the brains of 34 cognitively characterized monkeys and found an age-related increase in perivascular T cells that surround CNS vasculature. We found a surprising age-related increase in T cells that infiltrate the white matter parenchyma. In the cingulum bundle the percentage of these parenchymal T cells increased with age relative to those in the perivascular space. In contrast, infiltrating T cells were rarely found in surrounding gray matter regions. We assessed whether T cell infiltration correlated with fibrinogen extravasation from the vasculature as a measure of BBB leakiness and found no correlation, suggesting that T cell infiltration is not a result of passive extravasation. Importantly, the density of T cells in the cingulum bundle correlated with microglial reactivity and with cognitive impairment. This is the first demonstration that T cell infiltration of white matter is associated with cognitive decline in the normal aging monkey.
Nik Siti Zaimah Safiin, Saleem Mustafa, Fui Fui Ching, Rossita Shapawi, Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 2021
Different types and inclusion levels of palm oil were incorporated in the enriched diets of L-type rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, and fed to Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) larvae. The dietary fish oil was replaced with either 50 or 75% of crude palm oil, CPO (CPO50, CPO75) and refined bleached deodorized palm olein, RPO (RPO50, RPO75). The enriched diet containing 100% fish oil (FO100) was used as the experimental control. Triplicate groups of the fish larvae of initial length 2.72 ± 0.14 mm were fed with enriched rotifer for 15 days. In general, palm oil-based enriched diets performed better than the control diet (FO100). Specifically, final mean body weight (31.3 ± 9.2 mg), final mean total length (11.5 ± 1.6 mm), SGR (29.0 ± 1.4%/day) and WG (7,769.4 ± 1,510.8%) of Asian seabass larvae fed RPO75 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to those fed the other palm oil-based diet and FO100. The rotifer enriched with palm oil significantly affected the body proximate composition and fatty acid profiles of the fed larvae. The present study suggests that RPO and CPO can be considered as a good alternative dietary lipid for enrichment of rotifer to positively influence the nutritional requirements of the Asian seabass larvae and support their survival and growth.
Xi Feng, Ya Gong, Meng-Qi Ye, Zong-Jun Du, Frontiers in Marine Science, 8, 2021
Although Verrucomicrobia is widely distributed in the marine environment, their physiological or cellular properties are poorly characterized because of the lack of cultured representatives. Under the selective pressure of two antibiotics, ofloxacin and norfloxacin, a Gram-stain-negative, aerobic coccus with exopolysaccharide (EPS) production ability was isolated from the coastal sediment of Xiaoshi Island, Weihai, China. These antibiotics inhibited bacterial growth, giving rise to the relatively slow-growing Verrucomicrobia that formed colonies on the isolation plates. It may be an effective method for the isolation of Puniceicoccaceae. From the taxonomic data obtained in this study, the new marine isolate NFK12T (=KCTC 72940T = MCCC 1H00424T) is proposed to be placed into a novel species within the genus Pelagicoccus for which the name Pelagicoccus enzymogenes sp. nov. is proposed. The EPS production of the strain NFK12T and the related strains were investigated and the effect of EPS produced by the strain NFK12T on the growth of other strains was examined. Besides, the effect of EPS on tolerance to ofloxacin and norfloxacin of the strain NFK12T was studied by measuring the biomass of the strain NFK12T. It was deduced that those strains that produced EPS tentatively protected themselves against the inhibitory effects of ofloxacin and norfloxacin.
Daniela Zuzolo, Carmine Guarino, Maria Tartaglia, Rosaria Sciarrillo, Frontiers in Microbiology, 11, 2021
The contamination of soil with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) may result in dramatic consequences and needs great attention, as soil rehabilitation would need more effort from a sustainability perspective. However, there is still no known general method since the remediation technology is strictly site-specific. Adaptive biological system dynamics can play a key role in understanding and addressing the potential of situ-specific biological combinations for soil pollutants removal. The potential worst-case of TPH contamination reflects soil affected by heavy industrial activities, such as oil refineries. Therefore, the experimental trial was conducted on a 2,000 m2 area from a contaminated site located in northern Italy. We evaluated the remediation potential over time (270 days) assessing (i) the phytoremediation efficiency of two species of Poaceae (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. and Dactylis glomerata L.) and two species of Fabaceae (Medicago sativa L. and Lotus corniculatus L.) and (ii) the role of the indigenous bacteria flora and endo-mycorrhizae consortium addition in plant growth promotion. We also induced resistance to contamination stress in a field experiment. Thirty-three indigenous bacteria selected from the contaminated soils showed marked plant growth promotion. Moreover, functional metagenomics confirmed the metabolic capability of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms living in the polluted soil. Our data showed that soil enzymatic activities increased with hydrocarbon degradation rate after 60 days. Both Poaceae and Fabaceae resulted in remarkable remediation potential. Stress markers and antioxidant activity indicated that the selected plant species generally need some time to adapt to TPH stress. In conclusion, our evaluation implied both the rhizosphere effects and functional features of the plant and suggested that plants should (i) have marked tolerance to specific contaminants, (ii) be characterized by an extensive root system, and (iii) be susceptible to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) infection.
Mohit Kumar Saini, Aswathy Sebastian, Yoshiki Shirotori, Nathan T. Soulier, Amaya M. Garcia Costas, Daniela I. Drautz-Moses, Stephan C. Schuster, Istvan Albert, Shin Haruta, Satoshi Hanada, Vera Thiel, Marcus Tank, Donald A. Bryant, Frontiers in Microbiology, 12, 2021
Chloracidobacterium is the first and until now the sole genus in the phylum Acidobacteriota (formerly Acidobacteria) whose members perform chlorophyll-dependent phototrophy (i.e., chlorophototrophy). An axenic isolate of Chloracidobacterium thermophilum (strain BT) was previously obtained by using the inferred genome sequence from an enrichment culture and diel metatranscriptomic profiling analyses in situ to direct adjustments to the growth medium and incubation conditions, and thereby a defined growth medium for Chloracidobacterium thermophilum was developed. These advances allowed eight additional strains of Chloracidobacterium spp. to be isolated from microbial mat samples collected from Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park, United States, at temperatures of 41, 52, and 60°C; an axenic strain was also isolated from Rupite hot spring in Bulgaria. All isolates are obligately photoheterotrophic, microaerophilic, non-motile, thermophilic, rod-shaped bacteria. Chloracidobacterium spp. synthesize multiple types of (bacterio-)chlorophylls and have type-1 reaction centers like those of green sulfur bacteria. Light harvesting is accomplished by the bacteriochlorophyll a-binding, Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein and chlorosomes containing bacteriochlorophyll c. Their genomes are approximately 3.7 Mbp in size and comprise two circular chromosomes with sizes of approximately 2.7 Mbp and 1.0 Mbp. Comparative genomic studies and phenotypic properties indicate that the nine isolates represent three species within the genus Chloracidobacterium. In addition to C. thermophilum, the microbial mats at Mushroom Spring contain a second species, tentatively named Chloracidobacterium aggregatum, which grows as aggregates in liquid cultures. The Bulgarian isolate, tentatively named Chloracidobacterium validum, will be proposed as the type species of the genus, Chloracidobacterium. Additionally, Chloracidobacterium will be proposed as the type genus of a new family, Chloracidobacteriaceae, within the order Blastocatellales, the class Blastocatellia, and the phylum Acidobacteriota.
Francisco Jiménez-Trejo, Isabel Coronado-Mares, Cristian Arriaga-Canon, Luis A. Herrera, Bladimir Roque-Ramírez, Margarita Chávez-Saldaña, Julio Rojas-Castañeda, Marco Cerbón, Rosa M. Vigueras-Villaseñor, Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 14, 2021
Serotonin (5-HT) is member of a family of indolamine molecules that participate in a wide variety of biological processes. Despite its important role in the regulation of local blood systems, little is known about the physiological function of 5-HT in reproductive organs, its functional implications, and its role in the reproduction of mammals. In the present work, we evaluated the localization and distribution of 5-HT (using histochemical analysis of indolamines) and different components of the serotoninergic system in rat testes. We detected local synthesis and degradation through immunofluorescence and western blot analyses against the TPH1, MAOA, 5-HTT, and VMAT1 serotonin transporters. We also identified the localization and distribution of the 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT3Areceptors. RT-PCR results showed the presence of the Tph1, Maoa, Slc6a4, and Htr3a genes in testes and in the brain stem (Tph1 was used as a negative control). High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the presence of 5-HT and the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase in testes homogenatesin vitro. Our observations suggest that TPH1 activity and local 5-HT synthesis befall in rat testes. We propose that 5-HT could participate in the regulation of testosterone synthesis and in the spermatogenesis process via local serotoninergic system. However, more studies are needed before concluding that rat testes, or those of other mammals, contain an active form of tryptophan hydroxylase and produce 5-HT.
Kunwadee Noonong, Prasert Sobhon, Morakot Sroyraya, Kulathida Chaithirayanon, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 14, 2020
Extracts from Holothuria scabra (HS) have been shown to possess anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. More recently, it was shown to have neuroprotective potential in Caenorhabditis elegans PD model. Here, we assessed whether HS has neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects on dopaminergic neurons in both mouse and cellular models of PD. We found that both pre-treatment and post-treatment with HS improved motor deficits in PD mouse model induced with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) as determined by grid walk test. This was likely mediated by HS protective and restorative effects on maintaining the numbers of dopaminergic neurons and fibers in both substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum. In a cellular model of PD, HS significantly attenuated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced apoptosis of DAergic-like neurons differentiated from SH-SY5Y cells by enhancing the expression of Bcl-2, suppressing the expression of cleaved Caspase 3 and preventing depolarization of mitochondrial membrane. In addition, HS could stimulate the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and suppressed the formation of α-synuclein protein. Taken together, our in vivo and in vitro findings suggested that HS is an attractive candidate for the neuroprotection rather than neurorestoration in PD.
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