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Description
colour analyser, tri-stimulus colorimeter, colorimeter, instrument, colorimeter, colorimeter, colorimeter
This model was found at
464 locations
The model is used in
62 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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111 related research fields
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About the Minolta CR

The model Minolta CR was found in 464 unique locations in 62 countries where it was mentioned from 1996 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Food Science, Animal Science and Zoology, Plant Science, Microbiology, and Health Professions. The model is also used in Health (social science), General Veterinary, General Medicine, Analytical Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Biotechnology, Genetics, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, General Chemistry, Molecular Medicine, Pharmaceutical Science, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Drug Discovery, Molecular Biology, Agronomy and Crop Science, General Chemical Engineering, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Nutrition and Dietetics, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences, Microbiology (medical), Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality, Physiology, and Clinical Biochemistry.
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Research that uses the Minolta CR

Kamal Belhaj, Farid Mansouri, Aziz Tikent, Yassin Taaifi, Mohamed Boukharta, Hana Caid Serghini, Ahmed Elamrani, The Scientific World Journal, 2021, 1-8, 2021
Two hundred eight sheep, belonging to two main breeds of eastern Morocco, “Beni-Guil” and “Ouled-Djellal,” were investigated for carcass traits and meat quality. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of breed and age at slaughter on carcass traits and meat quality. The animals were slaughtered at three age classes: milk teeth, animals with two adult teeth, and adult animals. Dressing percentage, carcass measurements, compactness indices, carcass shrinkage parameter, conformation scores, fatness state, fat consistency, fat and meat colour, and pH were measured 24 hours postmortem. The results showed that the dressing percentage, carcass measurements, and compactness indices increased with slaughter age ( p < 0.001 ). Furthermore, the effect of breed was higher for Ouled-Djellal breed of carcass characteristics ( p < 0.01 ). However, no significant effect was observed for carcass shrinkage parameter. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the meat colour, which ranged from 23.89 to 21.96, while the ultimate pH ranged from 5.70 to 5.82. These results were influenced by age at slaughter ( p < 0.05 ) but not influenced by breed. Breed and age at slaughter had a significant influence on carcass traits ( p < 0.001 ). The present study provided a new insight into the effect of breed and age at slaughter on carcass and meat traits of both “Beni-Guil-PGI” and Ouled-Djellal sheep breeds.
Jiaoling Wang, Weidong Song, Chengqian Jin, Tianhang Ding, Mingyou Wang, Jinji Wu, Journal of Food Quality, 2021, 1-11, 2021
In order to further decrease the energy consumption of desiccant wheel dehumidification, the drying medium circulation characteristics of a system combining heat pump drying with desiccant wheel dehumidification were investigated. Moreover, the critical dehumidification conversion mechanism was studied. The analysis of the heat pump hot air circulation system demonstrated that the heat pump system has the best dehumidification efficiency. Through the analysis of the system combining heat pump drying with desiccant wheel dehumidification, the critical conversion point was determined. The critical dehumidification mechanism was further verified using an online temperature and humidity measurement system. To investigate the effect of the critical point on energy consumption and drying quality and develop a drying model, response surface experiments were performed based on the effects of regeneration temperature, drying temperature, and conversion point relative humidity on rehydration, color difference, and specific moisture extraction rate (SMER). The optimal conversion point humidity was determined to be about 46% RH, which was slightly different from the test optimization value of 45.6% RH. In addition, comprehensive optimization and experimental verification of the influencing factors were conducted. The results demonstrated that the R2 values of the three models were greater than 0.98, and the experimental factors had a significant effect on drying quality and energy consumption. When the regeneration temperature was 96°C, the drying temperature was 53°C, the relative humidity of the conversion point was 46%, the color difference was 46.3, the rehydration ratio was 5.75, and the SMER was 1.62 kg/kW·h.
Emmanuel M. Amwoka, Jane L. Ambuko, Hutchinson M. Jesang’, Willis O. Owino, Advances in Agriculture, 2021, 1-12, 2021
An on-farm study was conducted among smallholder mango farmers in Embu County of Kenya to demonstrate the effectiveness of simple harvest and postharvest handling practices to attain cold chain and extend mango shelf life. The recommended cold chain practices were compared with common farmers' practices. 'Apple', 'Ngowe', 'Kent', and 'Tommy Atkins' harvested at the mature green stage were used in the study. To demonstrate proper cold chain, fruits were harvested before 8 am, transported in crates lined with dampened newspapers, precooled in an evaporative charcoal cooler, and then transferred to a Coolbot™ cold room (10 ± 2°C). To demonstrate common farmers’ practices, fruits were harvested at noon, transported in open crates, and stored at ambient room conditions (25 ± 7°C, 55 ± 15%RH). The air and fruit pulp temperatures were monitored regularly using HUATO® data loggers. During the storage period, a random sample of 3 fruits (per variety) per treatment was taken after every 3 days to evaluate ripening related changes including physiological weight loss, colour, firmness, and total soluble solids. Proper cold chain practices resulted in low fruit pulp temperature (average 11°C) compared to 25°C for fruits handled using common practices by farmers leading to faster ripening as evidenced by lower peel/pulp colour and firmness, higher physiological weight loss, and higher total soluble solids. For example, flesh firmness of fruits under poor cold chain practices decreased from initial 36.6 N, 45.9 N, 66.5 N, and 46.8 N to 3.1 N, 2.4 N, 3.2 N, and 3.1 N for ‘Apple’, ‘Ngowe’, ‘Kent’, and ‘Tommy Atkins’ varieties, respectively, at the end of storage while that of fruits under proper cold chain practices reduced to 2.3 N, 1.5 N, 3.9 N, and 2.9 N, respectively, for the four varieties at the end of storage. Overall, proper cold chain management extended mango shelf life by 18 days. Application of simple harvest and handling practices coupled with simple storage technologies can attain and maintain the cold chain required to preserve quality and extend shelf life. This could increase the marketing and storage periods for later selling and processing, respectively, of mango fruits.
Chalida Cholmaitri, Apiradee Uthairatanakij, Natta Laohakunjit, Pongphen Jitareerat, Withawat Mingvanish, PeerJ Materials Science, 2, e12, 2020
The efficiencies of rice flour (RF) and rice husk (RH) as agents of the controlled release of methyl salicylate (RF-MeSA and RH-MeSA, respectively) were investigated. The adsorption percentage of RH-MeSA was significantly higher (two-fold) than that of RF-MeSA owing to its higher specific surface area and total pore volume. However, both materials are classified as mesoporous materials. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that MeSA diffused toward the pores and covered the surfaces of RF and RH. A temperature increase from 25 °C to 40 °C and an increase in relative humidity from 75% to 95% stimulated the release of MeSA. The kinetically controlled release of RF-MeSA and RH-MeSA was in line with a Fickian diffusion mechanism. Both RF-MeSA and RH-MeSA significantly delayed the ripening of banana fruit compared to the control. The results indicate that RF and RH can be used as biosorbent materials for the adsorption and controlled release of MeSA without chemical and mechanical modification.
Zoë Migicovsky, Trevor H. Yeats, Sophie Watts, Jun Song, Charles F. Forney, Karen Burgher-MacLellan, Daryl J. Somers, Yihui Gong, Zhaoqi Zhang, Julia Vrebalov, Robin van Velzen, James G. Giovannoni, Jocelyn K. C. Rose, Sean Myles, Frontiers in Genetics, 12, 2021
Softening is a hallmark of ripening in fleshy fruits, and has both desirable and undesirable implications for texture and postharvest stability. Accordingly, the timing and extent of pre-harvest ripening and associated textural changes following harvest are key targets for improving fruit quality through breeding. Previously, we identified a large effect locus associated with harvest date and firmness in apple (Malus domestica) using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we present additional evidence that polymorphisms in or around a transcription factor gene, NAC18.1, may cause variation in these traits. First, we confirmed our previous findings with new phenotype and genotype data from ∼800 apple accessions. In this population, we compared a genetic marker within NAC18.1 to markers targeting three other firmness-related genes currently used by breeders (ACS1, ACO1, and PG1), and found that the NAC18.1 marker was the strongest predictor of both firmness at harvest and firmness after 3 months of cold storage. By sequencing NAC18.1 across 18 accessions, we revealed two predominant haplotypes containing the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) previously identified using GWAS, as well as dozens of additional SNPs and indels in both the coding and promoter sequences. NAC18.1 encodes a protein that is orthogolous to the NON-RIPENING (NOR) transcription factor, a regulator of ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We introduced both NAC18.1 transgene haplotypes into the tomato nor mutant and showed that both haplotypes complement the nor ripening deficiency. Taken together, these results indicate that polymorphisms in NAC18.1 may underlie substantial variation in apple firmness through modulation of a conserved ripening program.
Elena Bartkiene, Vadims Bartkevics, Iveta Pugajeva, Anastasija Borisova, Egle Zokaityte, Vita Lele, Vytaute Starkute, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Dovile Klupsaite, Daiva Zadeike, Grazina Juodeikiene, Frontiers in Microbiology, 12, 2021
During plant-based drinks production a significant amount of valuable by-products (BPs) is obtained. The valorization of BPs is beneficial for both the environment and the food industry. The direct incorporation of the fermented and/or ultrasonicated almond, coconut, and oat drinks production BPs in other food products, such as wheat bread (WB) could lead to the better nutritional value as well as quality of WB. Therefore, in this study, various quantities (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of differently treated [ultrasonicated (37 kHz) or fermented with Lacticaseibacillus casei LUHS210] almond, coconut, and oat drinks preparation BPs were used in wheat bread (WB) formulations. Microbiological and other quality parameters (acidity, color, specific volume, porosity, moisture content, overall acceptability) as well as bread texture hardness during the storage and acrylamide content in the WB were evaluated. Among the fermented samples, 12-h-fermented almond and oat, as well as 24-h-fermented coconut drinks preparation BPs (pH values of 2.94, 2.41, and 4.50, respectively; total enterobacteria and mold/yeast were not found) were selected for WB production. In most cases, the dough and bread quality parameters were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influenced by the BPs used, the treatment of the BPs, and the quantity of the BPs. The highest overall acceptability of the WB prepared with 20% fermented almond drink preparation by-product (AP), 15% fermented oat drink preparation by-product (OP), and 15% ultrasonicated OP was established. After 96 h of storage, the lowest hardness (on average, 1.2 mJ) of the breads prepared with 5% fermented AP, coconut drink preparation by-product (CP), and OP and ultrasonicated CP was found. The lowest content of acrylamide in the WB prepared with OP was found (on average, 14.7 μg/kg). Finally, 15% fermented OP could be safely used for WB preparation because the prepared bread showed high overall acceptability, as well as low acrylamide content.
Antonio López–Gómez, María Ros–Chumillas, Laura Buendía-Moreno, Ginés Benito Martínez–Hernández, Frontiers in Nutrition, 7, 2020
The quality loss of fruit and vegetables should be minimized to reduce food waste during retail. In that sense, sustainable and effective post-harvest techniques/technologies are needed, showing active packaging including encapsulated essential oils a high potential. In that sense, we studied the effect of different sized active packages (including β-cyclodextrin-EOs inclusion complex) on the quality of grapes, nectarines, and lettuces (as models of berry fruit, stone fruit, and leafy vegetables) during storage at 2°C (90–95% relative humidity). The active industrial tray showed the best effect on grapes and lettuce quality, as it reduced rachis dehydration and product weight loss (reduced by ≈50% in grapes after 30 days), reduced berry shatter (reduced by ≈40% in grapes after 30 days), highly maintained the physicochemical quality (soluble solid content, titratable acidity and firmness), and also reduced microbial growth (0.5–1.4 lower log units than non-active industrial tray). For nectarines, the package with the biggest active surface (large tray, 200 × 300 × 90) also showed the best-quality retention compared to smaller packages, showing nectarines within active large tray better microbial quality (0.6–1 lower log units than non-active large tray) and firmness. As expected, flow packaging of nectarines (using active trays) better controlled the product weight loss. In conclusion, active cardboard packages with greater active surface better preserved quality of grapes, nectarines and lettuce, which sensory quality was accepted after more than 30, 25, and 14 days at 2°C, respectively, contrary to non-active samples (~1 week less).
Michail Michailidis, Georgia Tanou, Eirini Sarrou, Evangelos Karagiannis, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Stefan Martens, Athanassios Molassiotis, Frontiers in Nutrition, 8, 2021
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of exogenous melatonin (0. 5 mM) application through pre-harvest foliar spray and postharvest immersion, alone or in combination, on ripening parameters of sweet cherry (cv. Ferrovia) fruit and their relationship with bioactive compounds and gene expression at harvest as well after cold storage (0°C) for 12 days and subsequent room temperature (20°C) exposure for 8 h. Although several ripening traits were not influenced by melatonin, the combining pre- and post-harvest treatments delayed fruit softening at post-cold period. Preharvest spray with melatonin depressed fruit respiration at time of harvest while all applied treatments induced respiratory activity following cold, indicating that this anti-ripening action of melatonin is reversed by cold. Several genes related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle, such as PaFUM, PaOGDH, PaIDH, and PaPDHA1 were upregulated in fruit exposed to melatonin, particularly following combined pre- and post-harvest application. The accumulation of phenolic compounds, such as neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2+B4, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside along with the expression of several genes involved in phenols biosynthesis, such as PaSK, PaPAL, Pa4CL, PaC4H, and PaFNR were at higher levels in melatonin-treated cherries at harvest and after cold exposure, the highest effects being observed in fruits subjected to both pre- and post-harvest treatments. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of melatonin-responsive ripening framework at different melatonin application conditions and sweet cherry stages, thereby helps to understand the action of this molecule in fruit physiology.
Wenlong Wang, Chaoyue Wen, Qiuping Guo, Jianzhong Li, Shanping He, Yulong Yin, Frontiers in Physiology, 12, 2021
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in nature, is regarded as a potential feed additive to promote animal health and enhance the meat products’ quality via its various biological properties. The current study aims: (1) to determine whether dietary CGA supplementation improves meat quality and muscle fiber characteristics, and (2) to ascertain whether the corresponding improvement is associated with enhancing the antioxidant capacity of the finishing pigs. Thirty-two (Large × White × Landrace) finishing pigs with an average initial body weight of 71.89 ± 0.92 kg were allotted to 4 groups, and each was fed diets supplemented with 0, 0.02, 0.04, or 0.08% (weight/weight) of CGA. The meat quality traits, muscle fiber characteristics, and the serum and muscle antioxidant capacity were assessed. Results suggested that, compared with the control group, dietary CGA supplementation at a level of 0.04% significantly decreased the b∗ value and distinctly increased the inosinic acid content of longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles (P < 0.01). Moreover, dietary supplementation with 0.04% of CGA markedly improved the amino acid composition of LD and BF muscles, as well as augmented the mRNA abundance of Nrf-2, GPX-1, MyoD, MyoG, and oxidative muscle fiber (I and IIa) in LD muscle (P < 0.05). This result indicates that a diet supplemented with 0.04% of CGA promotes myogenesis and induces a transformation toward more oxidative muscle fibers in LD muscle, subsequently improving meat quality. Besides, dietary supplementation with 0.02% and 0.04% of CGA notably enhanced the serum GSH-PX level (P < 0.01). Considering all these effects are closely related to the alteration of antioxidant activities of the finishing pigs, the underlying metabolism is likely connected to the boosting of their antioxidant capacity induced by dietary CGA.
Bi Zheng Tan, Dugald C. Close, Peter R. Quin, Nigel D. Swarts, Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 2021
Optimizing the utilization of applied nitrogen (N) in fruit trees requires N supply that is temporally matched to tree demand. We investigated how the timing of N application affected uptake, allocation, and remobilization within 14-year-old “Gala”/M26 apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) over two seasons. In the 2017–2018 season, 30 g N tree−1 of 5.5 atom% 15N–calcium nitrate was applied by weekly fertigation in four equal doses, commencing either 4 weeks after full bloom (WAFB) (pre-harvest) or 1-week post-harvest, or fortnightly, divided between pre- and post-harvest (50:50 split). Nitrogen uptake derived from fertilizer (NDF) was monitored by leaf sampling before whole trees were destructively harvested at dormancy of the first season to quantify N uptake and allocation and at fruit harvest of the second season to quantify the remobilization of NDF. The uptake efficiency of applied N fertilizer (NUpE) was significantly higher from pre-harvest (32.0%) than from the other treatments (~17%). The leaf NDF concentration, an indicator of N uptake, increased concomitantly only when pre-harvest N was applied. Pre-harvest treated trees allocated more than half of the NDF into fruit and leaves and stored the same amount of NDF into perennial organs as the post-harvest treatment. Subsequent spring remobilization of NDF was not affected by the timing of N fertigation from the previous season. A seasonal effect of remobilization was observed with a decrease in root N status and a reciprocal increase in branch N status at fruit harvest of season two. These findings represent a shift in the understanding of dynamics of N use in mature deciduous trees and indicate that current fertilizer strategies need to be adjusted from post-harvest to primarily pre-harvest N application to optimize N use efficiency. This approach can provide adequate storage N to support early spring growth the following season with no detriment to fruit quality.
Xiangren Meng, Ziwu Gao, Yusheng Liang, Chenglong Zhang, Zhi Chen, Yongjiang Mao, Bizhi Huang, Kaixing Kui, Zhangping Yang, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7, 2020
With the rapid development of economy, the demand for beef, with regard to quantity and quality, by consumers has been increasing in China. Chinese native cattle are characterized by their abundant genetic resources, unique origins, large breeding stocks, and robust environmental adaptability. Thus, to explore the genetic mechanisms on regulating meat quality in Chinese native cattle is of great importance to satisfy increased requirements for beef production. In this study, we investigated three breeds of cattle, namely Yunling, Wenshan, and Simmental, at the age of 12 months. Animals were classified into three groups (n = 5/breed). Growth traits including body weight and body size and plasma hormone levels were measured. Body weight of Wenshan cattle was significantly lower than that of Yunling and Simmental cattle (P < 0.05). Again, body size indexes, such as withers height, body slanting length, chest circumference, and hip and rump length, were significantly lower in Wenshan cattle than those in Yunling and Simmental cattle (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in those indexes between Yunling and Simmental cattle (P > 0.05). Cattle were slaughtered at the age of 18 months and then meat color, pH, pressing losses, muscle tenderness, and cooking losses were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days. Data revealed differences in meat quality among the three breeds analyzed. Based on transcriptomic sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, we observed 3,198 differentially expressed genes related to meat quality, of which 1,750 genes were upregulated. Moreover, we found two important signaling pathways closely linked to meat quality, namely adipocytokine signaling pathway [e.g., Leptin receptor (LEPR)] and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum [e.g., signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), heat shock protein (HSPA12A), and calpain 1 (CAPN1)]. The results of transcripts were further verified by qRT-PCR. Using correlation analysis between gene expression levels and shear force, we also identified two functional genes (e.g., HSPA12A and CAPN1) associated with meat quality. Overall, this study provides new sights into novel targets and underlying mechanisms to modulate meat quality in Chinese native cattle.
Jean-Christophe Bambou, Steve Cériac, Léticia Liméa, Rémy Arquet, Bruno Bocage, Gisèle Alexandre, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 8, 2021
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet and age on finishing performances and carcass characteristics of male Creole goats. A total of 91 weaned male Creole kids [84 days old ± 7 days, 9.2 kg live weight (LW) ± 0.5 kg] were randomly allocated in a 2 × 3 experimental design. The animals were fed individually with two diets: C0: a 28-day-old Digitaria decubens grass alone, or C50: the same grass plus a commercial concentrate (50% of the total diet) and then slaughtered at 7, 11, or 15 months of age. Significant feeding regimen and age at slaughter effects were observed on the goat carcass characteristics. The addition of concentrate improved the average daily gain (ADG), the dressing percentage, and the conformation score (1–5 scale) from 46 to 88 g/day, 52.8 to 62.4%, and 2.2 to 4.9, respectively. Moreover, carcasses of the C0 group appeared lean with less developed fat than the C50 group and lighter than visceral fat. The meat color was significantly more affected by diet than age. Our data suggested that the production of heavy carcasses with low proportions of fat in the meat is possible in this local breed. The valorization of such a forage feeding system until 11 months of age or with the addition of concentrate from 7 to 11 months of age should be evaluated economically.
Adegoke Olusesan Adetoro, Umezuruike Linus Opara, Olaniyi Amos Fawole, Agriculture, 10, 493 (11), 2020
This study investigated the effect of hot-air and freeze-drying on the physicochemical, phytochemical and antioxidant capacity of dried pomegranate arils during long-term cold storage (7 ± 0.3 °C, with 92 ± 3% relative humidity) of whole fruit over a single experiment. Extracted arils were processed at monthly intervals during 12 weeks of cold storage of whole fruit. After the 12-week storage period, hot-air and freeze-dried arils showed the least (3.02) and highest (23.6) total colour difference (TCD), respectively. Hot-air dried arils also contained 46% more total soluble solids (TSS) than freeze-dried arils. During the storage of pomegranate fruit, total phenolic content (TPC) steadily increased from 20.9 to 23.9 mg GAE/100 mL and total anthocyanin content (TAC) increased from 6.91 to 8.77 mg C3gE /100 mL. Similarly, an increase in TPC and TAC were observed for hot-air (9.3%; 13%) and freeze-dried arils (5%; 5%), respectively. However, the radical scavenging activity (RSA) reduced by 8.5 and 17.4% for hot-air and freeze-dried arils, respectively, after 12 weeks of cold storage. Overall, the parameters such as colour, TPC and TAC as well as the lower degradation in RSA stability during storage showed distinct differences in quality when using the freeze-drying method, which is, therefore, recommended.
Francesca De Cillis, Beniamino Leoni, Maria Massaro, Massimiliano Renna, Pietro Santamaria, Agriculture, 9, 253 (12), 2019
Legumes crops play significant roles both in human diets and agriculture, and contribute to sustainable farming. In this study, we evaluated both some quality traits and yield of four landraces (Cegliese, Iambola, San Francesco, and FV5) of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz) for fresh consumption in order to assess and distinguish the landraces also in comparison with two commercial varieties (Aguadulce supersimonia and Extra-early purple) by using a crop system without irrigation. Independently of the genotype, we obtained the same pods yield (1794 g m−2) without affecting the seed size. All genotypes can be considered a good source of vitamin C, although Extra-early purple and San Francesco reveal the highest content (703 and 646 mg 100 g−1 fresh weight—FW, respectively). Cegliese showed the highest L-dopa content (10.14 mg 100 g−1 FW), suggesting its use as a natural rich source of L-dopa (dopamine precursor used for Parkinson’s disease treatment) instead of using synthesized L-dopa. In conclusion, this study highlight interesting quality traits of faba bean when consumed as fresh vegetables, suggesting its positive role on human health and the possibility of its production by using local horticultural systems that are skilled in optimizing resource utilization.
Donato Visconti, Nunzio Fiorentino, Eugenio Cozzolino, Sheridan Lois Woo, Massimo Fagnano, Youssef Rouphael, Agronomy, 10, 121 (1), 2020
The present study addresses the effects of Trichoderma-based biostimulants and nitrogen (N) fertilization levels on agronomic performance and functional quality of two important greenhouse leafy vegetables: lettuce and rocket. A factorial analysis of the relative effects of Trichoderma-based biostimulants (Trichoderma harzianum strain T22 and Trichoderma virens strain GV41) and N fertilization levels (sub-optimal, optimal, and supra-optimal) was carried out to evaluate crop productive behavior (marketable and unmarketable yields, leaf dry matter content, and biomass production), nitrogen nutrition (N uptake, apparent N recovery, and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)) as well as phytochemical qualitative components (antioxidant activity and total polyphenols). The soil plant analysis development (SPAD) index in both leafy vegetables and leaf colorimetry only in rocket were mainly affected by N fertilization levels but not by Trichoderma-based biostimulants. The contribution of native mineral N was 60 and 100 kg N ha−1 of the total uptake in lettuce and rocket, respectively, and N surpluses were observed in both crops, even under optimal fertilization conditions. Trichoderma virens GV41-based biostimulant increased lettuce marketable yield and biomass production, both under optimal and sub-optimal fertilization. In addition, the same treatment increased NUE up to 116% under recommended N fertilization, that was also associated to an increase in phenol content and antioxidant activity. Rocket showed a clear effect of the Trichoderma virens GV41 treatment, only in absence of fertilization, demonstrating an increase in marketable yield and N uptake. Thus, the inoculation of rocket with this Trichoderma biostimulant can be considered as a useful management tool in leafy vegetable cropping systems for the efficient use of residual fertilizers from previous crops, enhancing NUE within the crop rotations. Nevertheless, the application of microbial biostimulant treatments requires good monitoring of soil N fertility in order to avoid an overexploitation of soil N supplying potential.
Eugenio Cozzolino, Maria Giordano, Nunzio Fiorentino, Christophe El-Nakhel, Antonio Pannico, Ida Di Mola, Mauro Mori, Marios Kyriacou, Giuseppe Colla, Youssef Rouphael, Agronomy, 10, 427 (3), 2020
Scientists, extensions specialists, and growers are seeking sustainable agricultural practices that are able to cope with these objectives in order to ensure global food security and minimize environmental damage. The use of mulching films and plant biostimulants in agriculture seems to be a valid solution for tackling these rising concerns. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in order to elucidate the morpho-physiological and nutritive characteristics of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in response to foliar application of a tropical plant extract (PE) biostimulant and the use of plastic mulches. Two biodegradable mulch treatments (Mater-Bi® 1 and Mater-Bi® 2) were compared to black polyethylene (LDPE) and bare soil. Biodegradable mulch film Mater-Bi® 1 produced a comparable marketable fresh yield to the commercial standard polyethylene (LDPE), whereas Mater-Bi® 2 exhibited the highest crop productivity. When averaged over biostimulant application, lettuce plants grown with biodegradable film Mater-Bi® 2 exhibited superior quality traits in terms of K, Ca, total ascorbic acid, and carotenoids content. The combination of film mulching (LDPE, Mater-Bi® 1 or Mater-Bi® 2) with the tropical plant extract biostimulant exhibited a positive and significant synergistic effect (+30%) on yield. The PE-biostimulant induced higher values of SPAD index and total chlorophyll content when compared to untreated greenhouse lettuce. The mineral content of leaf tissues was greater by 10% and 17% (for P and Ca, respectively) when compared to the untreated lettuce (no PE application). Nitrate content was significantly reduced by 23% in greenhouse lettuce plants receiving PE as compared to the untreated control. The positive effect of Mater-Bi® 2 film on the ascorbic acid content has also been highlighted when combined with the biostimulant application, where a major amplification of total ascorbic acid (+168%) was recorded in comparison to the untreated lettuce. Overall, our work can assist leafy vegetables growers in adopting good agricultural practices, such as biodegradable plastic mulches and vegetal-derived biostimulants, to improve the sustainability of greenhouse production.
Marlene G. Aguilar-Hernández, Lucía Sánchez-Rodríguez, Francisca Hernández, María Ángeles Forner-Giner, Joaquín J. Pastor-Pérez, Pilar Legua, Agronomy, 10, 974 (7), 2020
Citrus fruits are one of the main crops produced in the world with oranges, tangerines, lemons and grapefruits being among the most important. Among them, lemons are beneficial for human health because of their antioxidant activity, phenols and vitamin C. This study evaluates three rootstocks obtained in a Spanish breeding program (Valencian Institute for Agricultural Research (IVIA)): Forner-Alcaide 5 citrus rootstock (‘FA 5’), Forner-Alcaide 13 (‘FA 13’) and Forner-Alcaide 517 (‘FA 517’) grafted onto cultivars ‘Eureka´, ‘Verna´, ‘Fino 49’ and ‘Betera´. The results determined that rootstocks have influenced cultivars in terms of a decrease in the fruit size, weight, and thickness of the peel; but has increased the percentage of juice and soluble solids. With respect to phenol content and antioxidant activity, higher values were found with all cultivars studied on rootstocks ‘FA 13’, followed by ‘FA 517’. Cultivars that were most influenced by rootstocks were ’Bétera’ and ’Eureka’ in physical properties, while in chemical properties they were ’Verna’ followed by ’Fino 49’. This investigation demonstrated the interaction of rootstocks on different cultivars in morphological, biochemical and nutraceutical characteristics.
Olaniyi Amos Fawole, Shannon Claudia Riva, Umezuruike Linus Opara, Agronomy, 10, 1023 (7), 2020
The effect of six edible coatings were investigated on the ability to alleviate shrivel and extend shelf life of plums. Fruit were subjected to a simulated shipping period (−0.5 ± 2 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH)) for five weeks and a subsequent shelf life period (20 ± 2 °C and 80 ± 5% RH) for 20 d. Overall, the study showed that it is possible to alleviate shrivel and also extend shelf life of plum (‘African Delight™’) at export and shelf life conditions. Amongst the edible coatings investigated, the findings in fruit coated with gum arabic and the commercial products were comparable and promising for postharvest preservation of the investigated plum cultivar. The coatings showed a moderate delay of fruit ripening, significantly reduced weight loss and shrivel development, allowing for the export of fruit over a long distance (five weeks) and up to 20 d of shelf life.
Marios C. Kyriacou, Georgios A. Soteriou, Youssef Rouphael, Agronomy, 10, 1396 (9), 2020
Vegetable grafting has become entrenched as a sustainable tool for addressing biotic and abiotic stresses of vegetable crops, including watermelon. The concerted action of scion–rootstock genotypes in shaping crop performance, fruit quality and postharvest behavior of watermelon is critical. In this respect, scions of different ploidy grafted on interspecific and gourd rootstocks were assessed. Yield traits were strongly influenced by rootstock, as opposed to fruit morphometric characteristics. Interspecific rootstock supported stable yield across seasons with a 20.5% increase over gourd, and induced thicker rind and higher pulp firmness by 30.1% over gourd, which constitute advantageous traits for shelf-life. Interspecific rootstock also increased lycopene content, which was further influenced by scion genotype irrespective of ploidy. Triploid cultivars attained higher firmness but lower sugars than diploid, which renders the former particularly prone to loss of sensory quality during postharvest depletion of sugars. Although total and reducing sugars decreased during storage, sucrose increased, which in conjunction with the postharvest accumulation of lycopene sheds new light on the postharvest physiology of watermelon. The marginal rootstock effect on sugars renders interspecific rootstock superior to gourd on account of higher yield, firmness and lycopene content. The present work constitutes a contribution toward understanding rootstock–scion relations and how they mediate crop performance, fruit quality and postharvest behavior of watermelon.
Ioanna Kakabouki, Antigolena Folina, Aspasia Efthimiadou, Stella Karydogianni, Charikleia Zisi, Varvara Kouneli, Nikolaos C. Kapsalis, Nikolaos Katsenios, Ilias Travlos, Agronomy, 11, 88 (1), 2021
While processing tomato cultivation (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is considered one of the most important industrial crops in Greece, a waste known as tomato pomace is growing significantly high. Notably, the tomato pomace presents enormous opportunities for the creations of organic fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of tomato pomace as a fertilizer in the same crop. A field experiment was established at the Agricultural University of Athens during 2018 and 2019 in a randomized complete design with five treatments (control, inorganic NPK (NPK), Tomato pomace and Biocycle Humus Soil (Tp and BHS), Tomato pomace and Farmyard manure (Tp and FYM), and Tomato pomace and Compost (Tp and CM). Physical soil properties such as soil porosity and penetration resistance were improved by the application of organic blends. Additionally, soil nitrogen content ranged from 0.10% (control and NPK) to 0.13% (Tp and FYM). A significant increase of yield was noticed under organic fertilization where the highest yield of 8.00 tn ha−1 was recorded in Tp and BHS (2018). Lycopene content was significantly affected by fertilization and its highest values were 87.25 (Tp and BHS; 2018), and 88.82 mg kg−1 fresh (Tp and FYM; 2019). Regarding fruit firmness, the three organic blends did not have statistically significant difference. In addition, the Total Soluble Solids (TSS) was significantly affected by the fertilization and the maximum value was 4.80 ◦Brix (Tp and CM; 2018). In brief, tomato pomace blended with organic fertilizers was yielded considerable since it improved soil quality and increased yield.
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