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pH meter, conductivity meter
This model was found at
54 locations
The model is used in
16 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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62 related research fields
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About the Mettler Toledo FiveEasy

The model Mettler Toledo FiveEasy was found in 54 unique locations in 16 countries where it was mentioned from 2014 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Food Science, Biotechnology, Microbiology, Organic Chemistry, and General Chemistry. The model is also used in Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Molecular Biology, Plant Science, Bioengineering, Chemistry, General Medicine, General Physics and Astronomy, Biochemistry, Drug Discovery, Spectroscopy, Catalysis, Inorganic Chemistry, Health (social science), Pharmaceutical Science, Health Professions, Materials Chemistry, Molecular Medicine, Microbiology (medical), Animal Science and Zoology, Computer Science Applications, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, General Chemical Engineering, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Biomaterials, and Analytical Chemistry.

About Mettler Toledo

Mettler Toledo is a worldwide manufacturer of laboratory equipment and is mainly known for its weighing equipment such as laboratory scales and other analytical scientific instruments. They also produce industrial equipment as well as automated reactors and in-situ analysers and quality control systems. In 2020, the company had over 16,000 employees worldwide and reported yearly revenues of approximately 2.8 billion euros.
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Research that uses the Mettler Toledo FiveEasy

Yulong Duan, Jie Lian, Lilong Wang, Xuyang Wang, Yongqing Luo, Wanfu Wang, Fasi Wu, Jianhua Zhao, Yun Ding, Jun Ma, Yulin Li, Yuqiang Li, Frontiers in Microbiology, 12, 2021
Bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryota diversity in mountainous areas varies along elevational gradients, but details remain unclear. Here, we use a next-generation sequencing method based on 16S/18S rRNA to reveal the soil microbial diversity and community compositions of alpine meadow ecosystems along an elevation span of nearly 2,000 m (1,936–3,896 m) in China’s Qilian Mountains. Both bacterial and eukaryota diversity increased linearly with increasing elevation, whereas archaeal diversity increased, but not significantly. The diversity patterns of several phyla in the bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryota communities were consistent with the overall elevational trend, but some phyla did not follow this pattern. The soil microbial community compositions were shaped by the coupled effects of regional climate and local soil properties. Intradomain links were more important than interdomain links in the microbial network of the alpine meadows, and these links were mostly positive. The bacteria formed more connections than either archaea or eukaryota, but archaea may be more important than bacteria in building the soil microbial co-occurrence network in this region. Our results provide new visions on the formation and maintenance of soil microbial diversity along an elevational gradient and have implications for microbial responses to climate change in alpine ecosystems.
Ewelina Pogorzelska-Nowicka, Monika Hanula, Iwona Wojtasik-Kalinowska, Adrian Stelmasiak, Magdalena Zalewska, Andrzej Półtorak, Agnieszka Wierzbicka, Agriculture, 10, 479 (10), 2020
Cold conditions are obligatory for mushrooms storage. However, in most cases, the cold chain is interrupted at various stages. Thus, is of great importance to propose a packaging system capable of inhibiting the detrimental effect of high temperature on mushrooms’ quality. The study evaluates the effect of high oxygen atmosphere (80% O2) in conjunction with films of different levels of microperforations (polysulfon (PSF) films, low: PSF_1000, PSF_2000; medium: PSF_3500; and high: PSF_7000) on antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds profile, sensory acceptance, and quality of mushrooms stored at 20 °C. Results showed that high O2 atmosphere inhibits the respiration rate of mushrooms. Application of high O2 atmosphere and film of high level of microperforations preserved desired color and profile of volatile compounds, ensured consumers color and overall acceptance. In turn, the single effect of the perforation level of the applied film was observed for antioxidant capacity, weight loss, vitamin C, malonylodialdehyde (MDA), and phenolics content. Packaging in low microperforated films led to the least amount of phenolics, highest MDA content, and poor antioxidant capacity in mushrooms. In turn, packaging with films of a medium level of perforation contributed to the highest vitamin C and phenolic content. There was no effect of treatment on texture, maturity index, protein content, and percentage of open capped mushrooms.
Anna Augustyńska-Prejsnar, Zofia Sokołowicz, Paweł Hanus, Małgorzata Ormian, Miroslava Kačániová, Animals, 10, 2393 (12), 2020
The material for the study was the breast muscles of hens after the laying period which were marinated with buttermilk and acid whey for 24 and 48 h. The quality parameters of non-marinated and marinated raw and roast products were evaluated in respect of physical traits (marinade absorption, pH, colour L*a*b*, shear force, TPA texture profile analysis test), microbiological parameters and sensory characteristics. The microbiological parameters were determined as the total viable counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family and Pseudomonas spp. Bacterial identification was performed by MALDI-TOF MS. The study showed that marinating the breast muscles of hens after the laying period with buttermilk and whey lightened the colour (p < 0.05), decreased the shear force value (p < 0.05), and reduced hardness and chewiness (p < 0.05) both after 24 and 48 h of marinating compared to the control product. The 24-h time of marinating with buttermilk and whey inhibited (p < 0.05) the growth of aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. and had a positive effect on the desirable odour, the intensity and desirability of flavour as well as the roast product tenderness. Longer marinating time reduced the product palatability and decreased its microbiological safety. The obtained results suggest that the 24-h time of marinating hen meat after the laying period with buttermilk and acid whey allows to obtainment of a high-quality product.
Mohamed Nabil, Mohamed A. El Raey, Walied Abdo, Mohamed A. O. Abdelfattah, Assem M. El-Shazly, Mansour Sobeh, Mona F. Mahmoud, Antioxidants, 10, 176 (2), 2021
We have previously reported that the leaf extract of Albizia anthelmintica exhibited substantial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties in vivo. We also comprehensively characterized the active phytoconstituents and found several flavonoids and galloyl glucosides derivatives. In the current work, we explored the gastroprotective effects of the leaf extract in an indomethacin-induced ulcer model and the mechanisms involved. The rats being pretreated with the tested extract (100 and 200 mg kg−1) significantly prevented gastric lesions by 87.4% and 92.3%, respectively, and they had no structural derangements in the gastric mucosa. The extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of IKκB, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, and lipid peroxidation; increased the reduced level of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity; and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model. The protective activities of the extract were similar in most aspects to those exerted by the known anti-ulcer drug famotidine. These activities might be attributed to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and the reduction of iNOS levels. In conclusion, Albizia anthelmintica is a potential candidate for management of gastric ulcers with antioxidant properties.
Agata Znamirowska, Katarzyna Szajnar, Małgorzata Pawlos, Dairy, 1, 126-134 (2), 2020
The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using collagen protein hydrolysate in the production of milk fermented by Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillusrhamnosus. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties were studied and microbiological analysis of fermented milk was performed on days 1 and 21 of storage. Milk with the addition of 3% collagen protein hydrolysate was pasteurized (85 °C/30 min), divided into two groups, cooled to 37 °C and inoculated: the first group with Bifidobacteriumanimalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, second with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Incubation was carried out at 37 °C/10 h. After 21 days of refrigerated storage, the pH value decreased in all analyzed milk samples. Collagen protein hydrolysate was a good milk additive to increase gel hardness and reduce syneresis. Moreover, its addition did not change the taste and odour of milk fermented with the use of Bifidobacterium Bb-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Collagen protein hydrolysate favourably stimulated the survival of Bifidobacterium Bb-12 during 21 days of storage. After 21 days of cold storage in milk with collagen, the number of Lactobacillus rhamnosus cells was reduced by 0.11 log cfu g−1.
Magdalena Kowalczyk, Agata Znamirowska, Magdalena Buniowska, Foods, 10, 678 (3), 2021
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the addition of inulin and the replacement of part of the inulin with apple fiber on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of ice cream. Moreover, the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied in sheep milk ice cream. There was no effect of the apple fiber and the type of bacteria on the number of bacteria in the probiotics after fermentation. As a result of freezing, in the mixture containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12, there was a significant reduction in the bacteria from 0.39 log cfu g−1 to 0.46 log cfu g−1. In all of the ice cream on the 21st day of storage, it exceeded 10 log cfu g−1, which means that the ice cream retained the status of a probiotic product. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus ice cream showed a lower yellow color compared to the Bifidobacterium Bb-12 ice cream. The overrun of the sheep’s milk ice cream was within the range of 78.50% to 80.41%. The appearance of the sheep’s milk ice cream is influenced significantly by the addition of fiber and the type of bacteria and the interaction between the type of bacteria and the addition of fiber, and storage time and fiber.
Yuthana Phimolsiripol, Srirana Buadoktoom, Pimporn Leelapornpisid, Kittisak Jantanasakulwong, Phisit Seesuriyachan, Thanongsak Chaiyaso, Noppol Leksawasdi, Pornchai Rachtanapun, Nareekan Chaiwong, Sarana Rose Sommano, Charles S. Brennan, Joe M. Regenstein, Foods, 10, 1241 (6), 2021
The effect of ultrasonication on the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Ceylon spinach (Basella alba) extracts (CE) and the shelf life of chilled pork with CE were studied. The CE were ultrasonicated at different power levels (60–100%) for 10–40 min in an ultrasonic bath with the rise of antioxidant activities (p ≤ 0.05) proportional to the ultrasonication time. The additional investigation of antibacterial activities showed that the ultrasonicated extracts (100 mg/mL) could inhibit and inactivate Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with the optimal condition of 80% power for 40 min. For shelf life testing, fresh pork treated with the ultrasonicated extracts at 100 and 120 mg/mL had lower values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) than the control (without dipping). For food safety as measured by the total microbial count, the fresh pork dipped with 100–120 mg/mL CE extract could be kept at 0 °C for 7 days, 2 to 3 days longer than control meat at 0 and 4 °C, respectively. A sensory evaluation using a nine-point hedonic scale showed that fresh pork dipped with 100-mg/mL CE extracts was accepted by consumers. It is suggested that CE extracts can be applied in the food industry to enhance the quality and extend the shelf life of meat products.
Małgorzata Pawlos, Agata Znamirowska, Grzegorz Zaguła, Magdalena Buniowska, Foods, 9, 994 (8), 2020
Amino acid chelates are a new group of compounds approved for food enrichment, however there is no previous research using calcium amino acid chelate to enrich goat’s milk products. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the possibility of using calcium amino acid chelate to produce goat’s acid-curd cheese. In this study, four types of acid-curd cheeses from goat’s milk subjected to 85 °C/5 min treatment were produced: control cheeses—made from milk without calcium addition and cheeses from milk enriched with 30, 35 and 40 mg of Ca (in 100 g of milk) in the form of calcium amino acid chelate. Goat cheese with calcium amino acid chelate had a higher moisture content, and a lower fat content. More fat was separated with the whey. In cheeses made from the milk with calcium amino acid chelate there was no goaty taste. Enrichment with 35 mg of Ca in 100 g of goat milk increased the calcium content in cheese by 60.5% in comparison to the control sample. However, the enrichment of goat milk with 40 mg Ca (in 100 g of processed milk) increased the calcium content in cheese by only 63.29%.
Kamila Czarnecka, Małgorzata Girek, Paweł Kręcisz, Robert Skibiński, Kamil Łątka, Jakub Jończyk, Marek Bajda, Jacek Kabziński, Ireneusz Majsterek, Piotr Szymczyk, Paweł Szymański, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20, 498 (3), 2019
Here we report the two-step synthesis of 8 new cyclopentaquinoline derivatives as modifications of the tetrahydroacridine structure. Next, the biological assessment of each of them was performed. Based on the obtained results we identified 6-chloro-N-[2-(2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinolin-9-ylamino)-hexyl]]-nicotinamide hydrochloride (3e) as the most promising compound with inhibitory potencies against EeAChE and EqBuChE in the low nanomolar level 67 and 153 nM, respectively. Moreover, 3e compound is non-hepatotoxic, able to inhibit amyloid beta aggregation, and shows a mix-type of cholinesterase’s inhibition. The mixed type of inhibition of the compound was confirmed by molecular modeling. Then, yeast three-hybrid (Y3H) technology was used to confirm the known ligand-receptor interactions. New derivatives do not show antioxidant activity (confirmed by the use of two different tests). A pKa assay method was developed to identify the basic physicochemical properties of 3e compound. A LogP assay confirmed that 3e compound fulfills Lipinsky’s rule of five
Kamila Czarnecka, Małgorzata Girek, Przemysław Wójtowicz, Paweł Kręcisz, Robert Skibiński, Jakub Jończyk, Kamil Łątka, Marek Bajda, Anna Walczak, Grzegorz Galita, Jacek Kabziński, Ireneusz Majsterek, Piotr Szymczyk, Paweł Szymański, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21, 3765 (11), 2020
A series of new tetrahydroacridine and 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid hybrids with different spacers were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their ability to inhibit both cholinesterase enzymes. Compounds 3a, 3b, 3f, and 3g exhibited selective butyrylcholinesterase (EqBuChE) inhibition with IC50 values ranging from 24 to 607 nM. Among them, compound 3b was the most active (IC50 = 24 nM). Additionally, 3c (IC50 for EeAChE = 25 nM and IC50 for EqBuChE = 123 nM) displayed dual cholinesterase inhibitory activity and was the most active compound against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Active compound 3c was also tested for the ability to inhibit Aβ aggregation. Theoretical physicochemical properties of the compounds were calculated using ACD Labs Percepta and Chemaxon. A Lineweaver–Burk plot and docking study showed that 3c targeted both the catalytic active site (CAS) and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. Moreover, 3c appears to possess neuroprotective activity and could be considered a free-radical scavenger. In addition, 3c did not cause DNA damage and was found to be less toxic than tacrine after oral administration; it also demonstrated little inhibitory activity towards hyaluronidase (HYAL), which may indicate that it possesses anti-inflammatory properties. The screening for new in vivo interactions between 3c and known receptors was realized by yeast three-hybrid technology (Y3H).
Irina Terekhova, Iliya Kritskiy, Mikhail Agafonov, Roman Kumeev, Carlos Martínez-Cortés, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21, 9102 (23), 2020
The selectivity of encapsulation of leflunomide and teriflunomide by native α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins was investigated through 1H NMR and molecular modeling. Thermodynamic analysis revealed the main driving forces involved in the binding. For α-cyclodextrin, the partial encapsulation was obtained while deep penetration was characterized for the other two cyclodextrins, where the remaining polar fragment of the molecule is located outside the macrocyclic cavity. The interactions via hydrogen bonding are responsible for high negative enthalpy and entropy changes accompanying the complexation of cyclodextrins with teriflunomide. These results were in agreement with the molecular modeling calculations, which provide a clearer picture of the involved interactions at the atomic level.
Anja Breuker, Simon F. Ritter, Axel Schippers, Metals, 10, 954 (7), 2020
Acidic solutions from metal bioleaching processes usually contain mixtures of metals in different concentrations which need to be separated and concentrated in downstream processing. Aim of this study was to explore and compare biosorption of rare earth elements (REE) by different microorganisms in acidic solutions. Biosorption of REE by bacteria and fungi showed element selective biosorption. The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis showed a higher selectivity to ytterbium (Yb) and lutetium (Lu) than the gram-negative bacteria Leisingera methylohalidivorans and Phaeobacter inhibens. In contrast, the tested fungi (Catenulostroma chromoblastomyces, Pichia sp.) showed a preference for the middle rare earth elements. Algae exhibited a low biosorption performance. Additionally, for B. subtilis and one yeast (Pichia sp.), better results were achieved with living than dead biomass. This study compares for the first time biosorption of different microorganisms at standardized conditions at low pH und application related conditions.
Yifan Zhong, Ming-Yuan Xue, Hui-Zeng Sun, Teresa G. Valencak, Le Luo Guan, Jianxin Liu, Microorganisms, 8, 2042 (12), 2020
Mastitis is one of the major problems for the productivity of dairy cows and its classifications have usually been based on milk somatic cell counts (SCCs). In this study, we investigated the differences in milk production, rumen fermentation parameters, and diversity and composition of rumen and hindgut bacteria in cows with similar SCCs with the aim to identify whether they can be potential microbial biomarkers to improve the diagnostics of mastitis. A total of 20 dairy cows with SCCs over 500 × 103 cells/mL in milk but without clinical symptoms of mastitis were selected in this study. Random forest modeling revealed that Erysipelotrichaceae UCG 004 and the [Eubacterium] xylanophilum group in the rumen, as well as the Family XIII AD3011 group and Bacteroides in the hindgut, were the most influential candidates as key bacterial markers for differentiating “true” mastitis from cows with high SCCs. Mastitis statuses of 334 dairy cows were evaluated, and 96 in 101 cows with high SCCs were defined as healthy rather than mastitis according to the rumen bacteria. Our findings suggested that bacteria in the rumen and hindgut can be a new approach and provide an opportunity to reduce common errors in the detection of mastitis.
Le Wang, Shusheng Fan, Xiaoping Wang, Xiuhuan Wang, Xin Yan, Dongjie Shan, Wuqing Xiao, Jiamu Ma, Yanran Wang, Xiao Li, Xiao Xu, Gaimei She, Molecules, 24, 3211 (18), 2019
Nü-Er-Cha, produced from the leaves of Rhamnus heterophylla Oliv., is known as an herbal tea and used in the treatment of bleeding, irregular menstruation and dysentery. A method was developed for the quality assessment of herbal tea, Nü-Er-Cha, adopting physical parameters, chemical constituents and sensory profiles as various potential factors. Their inner relationship was mined by multivariate statistical analysis tools, and the three factors were integrated by a technique for order preference by a similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach to comprehensively analyze the characters of Nü-Er-Cha. Viscosity was also introduced to the physical parameter determination besides conductivity, pH and color. Seven common peaks of eight batches of Nü-Er-Cha were marked by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint. They were further identified by HPLC mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) as hydroxybenzoic acids and flavanol glycosides. Fifty trained members participated in the sensory evaluation. Significant correlations between total sensory scores and conductivity, viscosity as well as pH were observed, a relatively innovative result for the quality assessment of herbal teas. The common peaks, belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids and flavanol glycosides, were mainly related to the color of infusions and leaves. The result of the TOPSIS analysis showed that S3 and S4 ranked as the top two in the comprehensive quality assessment. This may be related to rhamnetin triglycoside with a galactose/glucose and two rhamnoses, which had a higher peak response in S3 and S4 than that in the other samples. The present study may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship regarding physical properties, chemical composition and sensory profiles, and it may supply ideas for the comprehensive quality assessment of the herbal tea Nü-Er-Cha.
Martina Gudelj, Paola Šurina, Lucija Jurko, Ante Prkić, Perica Bošković, Molecules, 26, 3773 (12), 2021
Micellar systems are colloids with significant properties for pharmaceutical and food applications. They can be used to formulate thermodynamically stable mixtures to solubilize hydrophobic food-related substances. Furthermore, micellar formation is a complex process in which a variety of intermolecular interactions determine the course of formation and most important are the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between surfactant–solvent and solvent–solvent. Glycols are organic compounds that belong to the group of alcohols. Among them, propane-1,2-diol (PG) is a substance commonly used as a food additive or ingredient in many cosmetic and hygiene products. The nature of the additive influences the micellar structure and properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). When increasing the mass fraction of propane-1,2-diol in binary mixtures, the c.m.c. values decrease because propane-1,2-diol is a polar solvent, which gives it the ability to form hydrogen bonds, decreasing the cohesivity of water and reducing the dielectric constant of the aqueous phase. The values of ΔGm0 are negative in all mixed solvents according to the reduction in solvophobic interactions and increase in electrostatic interaction. With the rising concentration of cosolvent, the equilibrium between cosolvent in bulk solution and in the formed micelles is on the side of micelles, leading to the formation of micelles at a lower concentration with a small change in micellar size. According to the 1H NMR, with the addition of propylene glycol, there is a slight shift of SDS peaks towards lower ppm regions in comparison to the D2O peak. The shift is more evident with the increase in the amount of added propane-1,2-diol in comparison to the NMR spectra of pure SDS. Addition of propane-1,2-diol causes the upfield shift of the protons associated with hydrophilic groups, causing the shielding effect. This signifies that the alcohol is linked with the polar head groups of SDS due to its proximity to the SDS molecules.
Laure Bar, George Cordoyiannis, Shova Neupane, Jonathan Goole, Patrick Grosfils, Patricia Losada-Pérez, Nanomaterials, 11, 1087 (5), 2021
The interest in nano-sized lipid vesicles in nano-biotechnology relies on their use as mimics for endosomes, exosomes, and nanocarriers for drug delivery. The interactions between nanoscale size lipid vesicles and cell membranes involve spontaneous interbilayer lipid transfer by several mechanisms, such as monomer transfer or hemifusion. Experimental approaches toward monitoring lipid transfer between nanoscale-sized vesicles typically consist of transfer assays by fluorescence microscopy requiring the use of labels or calorimetric measurements, which in turn require a large amount of sample. Here, the capability of a label-free surface-sensitive method, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), was used to monitor lipid transfer kinetics at minimal concentrations and to elucidate how lipid physicochemical properties influence the nature of the transfer mechanism and dictate its dynamics. By studying time-dependent phase transitions obtained from nanoviscosity measurements, the transfer rates (unidirectional or bidirectional) between two vesicle populations consisting of lipids with the same head group and differing alkyl chain length can be estimated. Lipid transfer is asymmetric and unidirectional from shorter-chain lipid donor vesicles to longer-chain lipid acceptor vesicles. The transfer is dramatically reduced when the vesicle populations are incubated at temperatures below the melting of one of the vesicle populations.
Mario-Livio Jeličić, Edvin Brusač, Daniela Amidžić Klarić, Biljana Nigović, Sabina Keser, Ana Mornar, Pharmaceuticals, 13, 187 (8), 2020
Inflammatory bowel disease is a common name for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. These inflammatory states cause damage in the sidewalls of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in malabsorption of food and vitamins. Folic acid (Vitamin B9) is often associated with inflammatory bowel diseases since reduced overall folate concentration in the human body may lead to the development of colorectal cancer and megaloblastic anaemia. However, its deficiency is easily compensated by taking an additional folic acid pill during regular therapy. At the moment, there are no studies that have examined the compatibility of folic acid with 5-aminosalicylate drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. In this work, differential scanning calorimetry, forced degradation studies, isothermal stress testing and dissolution stability testing were used to determine the stability of folic acid and one of the most commonly used 5-aminosalicylates, mesalazine, when present in the same solution or blend. To monitor the assay of folic acid, mesalazine and nine of its related impurities, a single HPLC method was developed. Results of compatibility studies showed that no physicochemical interaction between mesalazine and folic acid occurs when combined, opening the path to the development of new formulations, such as a mesalazine/folic acid fixed-dose combination.
Zhulin Xue, Yanlu Wang, Hongjian Yang, Shoujiao Li, Yingjun Zhang, Sustainability, 12, 871 (3), 2020
Intercropping is a globally accepted method of forage production and its effect on silage quality depends not only on forage combination but also fertilization strategy. In the present study, field intercropping of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at five seed ratios (100:0, 75:25: 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 in %, based on seed weight) was applied under three N fertilizing levels (0, 50, and 100 kg/ha), and harvested for silage making and in vitro rumen degradation. As a result of intercropping, the actual proportions (based on dry matter) of alfalfa in mixtures were much closer to seed proportion of alfalfa in field, except 75:25 orchardgrass-alfalfa intercrops with no fertilization. The actual proportions of alfalfa in mixtures decreased by 3–13% with the increase of N level. Increases of alfalfa proportion in mixtures increased silage quality, nutrients degradability and CH4 emissions. Increasing N levels increased silage pH, concentration of butyric acid, and fiber fractions. In summary, inclusion of alfalfa at around 50% in orchardgrass-alfalfa silage mixtures were selected for favorable ensiling and higher forage use efficiency while also limiting CH4 emissions, compared to monocultures. The silage quality and feeding values of mixtures were influenced more by forage ratios than by N levels.
Yuancan Xiao, Cen Li, Wei Xu, Yuzhi Du, Ming Zhang, Hongxia Yang, Lixin Wei, Hongtao Bi, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2021, 1-9, 2021
The excessive arsenic content in wild Cordyceps sinensis has caused great concerns on human health. The toxicity of arsenic depends on its concentration, chemical form, and valence. The source studies of arsenic in C. sinensis are essential for safety evolution and quality control. We used ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS methods to determine the total arsenic amount and the arsenic speciation. Synchrotron-based XANES and micro-XRF imaging techniques were used to characterize arsenic valence and distribution. The total arsenic amount range in wild C. sinensis samples was 5.77–13.20 μg/g with an average of 8.85 ± 2.5 μg/g. As(III) and As(V) were the main species in wild C. sinensis samples. The iAs only accounts for 4.47–11.42% of the extracted arsenic. Trivalent and pentavalent forms were the dominant chemical forms of arsenic. Besides, we found that arsenic was accumulated at the digestive tract of the host larva.
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