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transmission electron microscope, microscope, equipped transmission electron microscope, microscope, microscope, transmission electron microscope
This model was found at
2861 locations
The model is used in
64 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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About the Jeol JEM 2100

The model Jeol JEM 2100 was found in 2861 unique locations in 64 countries where it was mentioned from 2008 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as General Materials Science, General Chemistry, General Chemical Engineering, General Physics and Astronomy, and Condensed Matter Physics. The model is also used in General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, General Medicine, Pharmaceutical Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Organic Chemistry, Bioengineering, Analytical Chemistry, Catalysis, Polymers and Plastics, Molecular Medicine, General Engineering, Biochemistry, Mechanics of Materials, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Biomaterials, Biotechnology, Mechanical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Materials Chemistry, Molecular Biology, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Surfaces, Coatings and Films, Drug Discovery, and Inorganic Chemistry.
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Research that uses the Jeol JEM 2100

Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dao Huang, Jianmin Chen, Zongbo Shi, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Daizhou Zhang, Weijun Li, 2018
Abstract. Aerosol-cloud interaction remains a major source of uncertainty in climate forcing estimate. Our knowledge about the aerosol-cloud interaction is particularly weak in heavily polluted conditions. In this study, cloud residual (cloud RES) and cloud interstitial (cloud INT) particles were collected during cloud events under different pollution levels from 22 July to 1 August, 2014 at Mt. Tai (1532 m above sea level) located in the North China Plain (NCP). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate size, composition, and mixing state of individual cloud RES and INT particles. Our results show that S-rich particles were predominant (78 %) during clean periods (PM2.5 
Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Liang Xu, Qiuhan Lin, Hujia Zhao, Zhibin Wang, Song Guo, Min Hu, Zongbo Shi, Dantong Liu, Dao Huang, Weijun Li, 2020
Abstract. As one of the intense anthropogenic emission regions across the relatively high latitude (> 40° N) areas on the Earth, Northeast China faces serious problem on regional haze during long winter with half a year. Aerosols in polluted haze in Northeast China are poorly understood compared with the haze in other regions of China such as North China Plain. Here, we for the first time integrated bulk chemical measurements with single particle analysis from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain morphology, size, composition, aging process, and sources of aerosol particles collected during two contrasting regional haze events (Haze-I and Haze-II) at an urban site and a mountain site in Northeast China, and further investigated the causes of regional haze formation. Haze-I evolved from moderate (average PM2.5: 76–108 μg/m3) to heavy pollution (151–154 μg/m3), with the dominant PM2.5 component changing from organic matter (OM) (39–45 μg/m3) to secondary inorganic ions (94–101 μg/m3). Similarly, TEM observations showed that S-OM particles elevated from 29 % to 60 % by number at urban site and 64 % to 74 % at mountain site and 75–96 % of Haze-I particles included primary OM. Change of wind direction induced that Haze-I rapidly turned into Haze-II (185–223 μg/m3) with the predominant OM (98–133 μg/m3) and unexpectedly high K+ (3.8 μg/m3). TEM also showed that K-OM particles increased from 4–5 % by number to 50–52 %. Our study revealed a contrasting formation mechanism of these two haze events: Haze-I was induced by accumulation of primary OM emitted from residential coal burning and further deteriorated by secondary aerosol formation via heterogeneous reactions; Haze-II was caused by long-range transport of agricultural biomass burning emissions. Moreover, we found that 75–97 % of haze particles contained tarballs, but only 4–23 % contained black carbon and its concentrations were low at 2.7–4.3 μg/m3. The results highlight that abundant tarballs are important light-absorbing brown carbon in Northeast China during winter haze and further considered in climate models.
Liang Xu, Satoshi Fukushima, Sophie Sobanska, Kotaro Murata, Ayumi Naganuma, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongya Niu, Zongbo Shi, Tomoko Kojima, Daizhou Zhang, Weijun Li, 2020
Abstract. Tracing the aging progress of soot particles during transport is highly challenging. An Asian dust event could provide an ideal opportunity to trace the continuous aging progress of long-range transported soot particles. Here, we collected individual aerosol particles at an inland urban site (T1) and a coastal urban site (T2) in China and a coastal site (T3) in southwestern Japan during an Asian dust event. Microscopic analysis showed that the number fraction of soot-bearing particles increased from 19 % to 22 % from T1 to T2 in China but surprisingly increased to 56 % at T3 in Japan. The dominant fresh soot (71 %) at T1 became partially embedded (70 %) at T2 and fully embedded (84 %) at T3. These results indicated that the soot particles had lower deposition than other aerosol types and became more aged from T1 to T3. The fractal dimension of the soot particles slightly changed from 1.74 at T1 and 1.78 at T2 but significantly became 1.91 at T3. We found that the soot morphology compressed depending on secondary coating thickness and relative humidity. Moreover, we observed a unique mixing structure at T3 that tiny soot particles were seemly broken from large ones cross the East China Sea and distributed in organic coatings instead of sulfate core in particles. Our study provide important constraints of the morphological effects to better understand changes of microscopic structures of soot. These new findings will be helpful to improve optical calculation and modeling of soot particles and their regional climate effects in the atmosphere.
Stephanie Pabich, Christian Vollmer, Nikolaus Gussone, European Journal of Mineralogy, 32, 613-622 (6), 2020
Abstract. We studied the crystallographic orientation of calcite crystals in benthic foraminifers by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Individuals of two species, Gyroidinoides soldanii and Cibicidoides grimsdalei, featuring different test structures, were investigated for a time span covering 43 Myr. The aims of this study are to visualize test structure differences in foraminifers and to reveal potential changes in crystal orientation and grain size over time caused by diagenetic reactions such as recrystallization. Such recrystallization effects over time may aid in the interpretation of time-resolved geochemical data obtained on foraminiferal samples for paleo-environmental reconstructions. The EBSD patterns clearly resolve the different test structures of the two species. Cibicidoides grimsdalei has the c axes perpendicular to the test surface. An apparent shift in the preferred crystal orientation can most likely be attributed to a mismatch between the equatorial plane and cutting plane of the foraminiferal test, highlighting the importance of reproducible preparation techniques. In Gyroidinoides soldanii, the c axes of the calcite crystals show a broader distribution of the crystals with no preferred orientation. The specimens show no change in crystal sizes over time, with a frequency maximum corresponding to the spot size of the electron beam. Overall, the differences between the two species demonstrate that EBSD is a powerful tool to visualize and differentiate between foraminiferal test structures.
Lisa de Ruiter, Anette Eleonora Gunnæs, Dag Kristian Dysthe, Håkon Austrheim, 2020
Abstract. Quartz has been replaced by magnesium silicate hydrate cement at the Feragen ultramafic body in south-east Norway. This occurs in deformed and recrystallized quartz grains deposited as glacial till covering part of the ultramafic body. Where the ultramafic body is exposed, weathering leads to high pH (~10), Mg-rich fluids. The dissolution rate of the quartz is about 3 orders of magnitude higher than experimentally derived rate equations suggest under the prevailing conditions. Quartz dissolution and cement precipitation starts at intergranular grain boundaries that act as fluid pathways through the recrystallized quartz. Etch pits are also extensively present at the quartz surfaces as result of preferential dissolution at dislocation sites. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an amorphous silica layer with a thickness of 100–200 nm around weathered quartz grains. We suggest that the amorphous silica is a product of interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation and that the amorphous silica subsequently reacts with the Mg-rich, high pH bulk fluid to precipitate magnesium silicate hydrate cement, allowing for further quartz dissolution and locally a complete replacement of quartz by cement. The cement is the natural equivalent of magnesium silicate hydrate cement (M-S-H), which is currently of interest for nuclear waste encapsulation or for environmentally friendly building cement, but not yet developed for commercial use. This study provides new insights that could potentially contribute in the further development of M-S-H cement.
Fahui Gao, Yanru Yin, Zhengshuai Cao, Hongliang Li, Peizhi Guo, Journal of Chemistry, 2020, 1-9, 2020
Palladium-based bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied as important electrocatalysts for energy conversion due to their high electrocatalytic performance and the less usage of the noble metal. Herein, well-dispersed PdAg NPs with uniform size were prepared via oil bath accompanied with the hydrothermal method. The variation of the Ag content in PdAg NPs changed the lattice constant of the face-centered cubic alloy nanostructures continuously. The Pd/Ag molar ratio in the PdAg alloy NPs affected their size and catalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation. Experimental data showed that PdAg NPs with less Ag content exhibited better electrocatalytic activity and durability than pure Pd NPs owing to both the small size and the synergistic effect. PdAg-acac-4 with the Pd/Ag molar ratio of 4 : 1 in the start system possessed the highest catalytic current density of 2246 mA/mg for the electrooxidation of ethanol. The differences in the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the as-made PdAg NPs have been discussed and analyzed.
Tran Thanh Hoai, Phan Thi Yen, Tran Thi Bich Dao, Luu Hai Long, Duong Xuan Anh, Luu Hai Minh, Bui Quoc Anh, Nghiem Thi Thuong, Journal of Nanomaterials, 2020, 1-11, 2020
In this work, prenanoemulsion of rutin was prepared using PEG and Tween as emulsifiers via homogenization and evaporation techniques. The particle size of rutin was investigated with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM); particle size distribution and its chemical structure were analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. It was found that rutin in the prenanoemulsion has excellent solubility in water with the size approximately 15 nm. The chemical structure of nanorutin in prenanoemulsion was identical to that of the pure rutin. It suggested that there is no chemical modification of rutin in the prenanoemulsion. From high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the amount of rutin in the prenanoemulsion was determined to be 9.27%. The cytotoxic effect of rutin in the preemulsion was investigated via in vitro tests to determine rutin’s efficacy in A549 lung cancer cell and colon cancer cell treatment. The results demonstrated that rutin in the prenanoemulsion could inhibit A549 lung cancer cells and colon cancer cells efficiently.
Yifei Liu, Wenqiang Fu, Xiaoning Cao, Shuopeng Li, Tianyu Xiong, Xiaolei Zhang, Xiaotang Wu, Ling Cheng, Yanbing Wei, Bin Gao, Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, 2021, 1-9, 2021
Objectives. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as the primary components of cancer stroma can affect tumor progression by secreting exosomes, while exosomes are carriers for proteins, nucleic acids, and other agents that responsible for delivery of biological information. Given this, exosomes derived from CAFs are emerging as promising biomarkers in clinical cancer diagnosis. Nevertheless, their role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains poorly understood. Methods. Here, we separated fibroblasts from ccRCC tissue, extracted exosomes, observed their morphology, and detected the expression of exosome marker proteins including Hsp70, CD9, and CD63. In the meantime, we labeled exosomes and performed coculture experiment to verify the delivery of miR-224-5p from CAFs to 769-P cells with exosomes as a carrier, so as to clarify the effect of CAF-derived exosomes on ccRCC cell malignant behaviors, as well as to discuss how miR-224-5p involves in above regulation. Results. Transmission electron microscopy was firstly applied, and it was noted that the exosomes we isolated were in normal range. Besides, Western blot also confirmed the presence of exosome marker proteins Hsp70, CD9, and CD63. Furthermore, coculture experiments were performed and the CAF-derived exosomes were observed to be able to facilitate the malignant behaviors of ccRCC cells, and the exosomal miR-224-5p could be internalized by ccRCC cells to participate in regulation of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis. Conclusion. To sum up, miR-224-5p can enter ccRCC cells via CAF-derived exosomes, in turn, promoting the malignant behaviors of ccRCC cells, which indicates that miR-224-5p has the potential severing as a therapeutic target for ccRCC.
Nigel Becknell, Pietro Lopes, Toru Hatsukade, Xiuquan Zhou, Yuzi Liu, Brandon Fisher, Duck Young Chung, Mercouri Kanatzidis, Nenad Markovic, Sanja Tepavcevic, Vojislav Stamenkovic, 2021
Abstract Intrinsically stable materials are desirable for constructing energy storage devices, which aim to demonstrate durability under the harsh electrochemical conditions that are detrimental to their lifespan. However, we demonstrate here that the intrinsic instability of an electrochemical interface can be converted from an obstacle into an advantage. In aqueous zinc-ion batteries, manganese oxide (MnO2) exhibits considerable dissolution even in electrolyte containing Mn2+ salt. Balancing with redeposition alleviates the harmful impact of dissolution on performance and alters the trajectory of the active phase. Inclusion of Mn2+ salt in the electrolyte induces MnO2 deposition on all conductive surfaces, requiring that distracting side reactions be eliminated to isolate the dynamics of the active phase. Under conditions favoring dissolution, capacity decreases dramatically and a highly crystalline tetragonal ZnMn2O4 phase forms, while redeposition helps maintain capacity and promotes a disordered cubic Zn-rich phase. Ultimately, this work aims to illuminate a path forward to unlock the potential of batteries made with materials that are fundamentally unstable in their operating environment.
Le Thi Hoa, Le Thi Thanh Nhi, Le Van Thanh Sơn, Nguyen Le My Linh, Ho Van Minh Hai, Dinh Quang Khieu, Journal of Nanomaterials, 2021, 1-16, 2021
Herein, the single-atom Ni site heterogeneous catalysts supported by the UiO-66 structure (University of Oslo-66 metal organic framework) were successfully synthesized by a postsynthetic metalation method, where Ni ions are covalently attached to the missing-linker defect sites at zirconium oxide clusters (Zr6O4(OH)4) in as-prepared UiO-66 structure, [Zr6O4(OH)4(BDC)(DMF)10(OH)10] (BDC (benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate), DMF (dimethylformamide)). The structure properties of the catalysts were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). It was found that single-atom Ni heterogeneous catalysts supported by the UiO-66 structure, UiO-66/Ni1.0 [Zr6O4(OH)4(C8H4O4)(DMF)10(OH)8Ni2(OH)2(Cl)2], showed a sphere-like morphology with a high specific surface area as well as good thermal stability. Specifically, the as-prepared UiO-66/Ni1.0 exhibited the excellent catalytic activity and stability for 4-nitrophenol reduction in terms of low activation energy ( E a = 23.15 kJ mo l 1 ), high turnover frequency (76.19 molecules g-1 min-1), and high apparent rate constant ( k app = 0.956 mi n 1 ). In addition, methylene blue (MB) was also chosen as the organic dye model for catalytic reduction reaction. The k app and TOF for the reduction of MB using UiO-66/Ni1.0 were 0.787 min−1 and 33.89 × 10 20 molecules g−1 min−1, respectively.
Zheng-Yang Huo, Young Jun Kim, In-Yong Suh, Dong-Min Lee, Jeong Hwan Lee, Ye Du, Si Wang, Hong-Joon Yoon, Sang-Woo Kim, 2020
Abstract Air-transmitted pathogens may lead to severe epidemics (e.g., COVID-19) showing huge threats to public health. Inactivation of the pathogenic microbes in the air is an essential process, whereas the feasibility of existing air disinfection technologies has encountered obstacles including only achieving physical separation but no inactivation, obvious pressure drops, and energy intensiveness. Here we report a rapid disinfection method for inactivating air-transmitted bacteria and viruses using the nanowire-enhanced localized electric field to damage the outer structures of microbes. This air disinfection system is driven by a triboelectric nanogenerator that converts mechanical vibration to electricity effectively and achieves self-powered. Assisted by a rational design for the accelerated charging and trapping of microbes, this self-powered air disinfection system promotes the microbial transport and achieves high performance: >99.99% microbial inactivation within 0.025s in a fast airflow (2 m/s) while only causing low pressure drops (<24 Pa). This rapid, self-powered air disinfection method may fill the urgent need for the air-transmitted microbial inactivation to protect public health.
Fang Wang, Wei Sha, Xin Wang, Yuntao Shang, Lei Hou, Yao Li, Adsorption Science &amp; Technology, 2021, 1-12, 2021
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have attracted much attention in recent years. Graphene-based materials (GMs) have been deemed as excellent adsorbents for the removal of EDCs. The objective of the present study was to understand how the cationic surfactants (CTAB; cetyltrimethylammonium nitrate) affect the adsorption of EDCs (17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA)) on graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxides (RGOs), and the few-layered commercial graphene (CG). It was observed that the presence of CTAB showed different effects on the adsorption of EDCs to different GMs. The adsorption of EDCs on GO was enhanced because of the enhanced hydrophobicity of GMs after the adsorption of CTAB and the newly formed hemimicelles by the adsorbed CTAB, which could serve as the partition phase for EDCs. Moreover, the electron donor-acceptor interaction and cation bridging effect of the –NH4+ group of the adsorbed CTAB between EDCs and GMs could also enhance the adsorption of EDCs to GMs. With the increase of the extent of GM reduction, the adsorption enhancement by the presence of CTAB weakened. This could be attributed to the competition and pore blockage effect caused by the adsorbed CTAB. It is worth noting that the enhancement of CTAB on the adsorption of BPA to GMs was more profound than that of EE2. This is likely because the pore blockage effect plays a less important role in the adsorption of BPA due to its smaller molecular diameter and deformable structure.
Syed Tawab Shah, Wageeh A. Yehye, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Khanom Simarani, PeerJ, 7, e7651, 2019
Oxidative stress can be reduced substantially using nanoantioxidant materials by tuning its surface morphological features up to a greater extent. The physiochemical, biological and optical properties of the nanoantioxidants can be altered by controlling their size and shape. In view of that, an appropriate synthesis technique should be adopted with optimization of the process variables. Properties of magnetite nanoparticles (IONP) can be tailored to upgrade the performance of biomedicine. Present research deals with the functionalization IONP using a hydrophobic agent of quercetin (Q). The application of quercetin will control its size using both the functionalization method including in-situ and post-synthesis technique. In in-situ techniques, the functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (IONP@Q) have average particles size 6 nm which are smaller than the magnetite (IONP) without functionalization. After post functionalization technique, the average particle size of magnetite IONP@Q2 determined was 11 nm. The nanoparticles also showed high saturation magnetization of about 51–59 emu/g. Before starting the experimental lab work, Prediction Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS) software was used to have a preliminary idea about the biological activities of Q. The antioxidant activity was carried out using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antibacterial studies were carried out using well diffusion method. The results obtained were well supported by the simulated results. Furthermore, the values of the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the DPPH antioxidant assay were decreased using the functionalized one and it exhibited a 2–3 fold decreasing tendency than the unfunctionalized IONP. This exhibited that the functionalization process can easily enhance the free radical scavenging properties of IONPs up to three times. MIC values confirms that functionalized IONP have excellent antibacterial properties against the strains used (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli) and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The findings of this research showed that the synthesized nanocomposite has combinatorial properties (magnetic, antioxidant and antimicrobial) which can be considered as a promising candidate for biomedical applications. It can be successfully used for the development of biomedicines which can be subsequently applied as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer agents.
Samar Shurbaji, Ibrahim M. El-Sherbiny, Maha Alser, Isra H. Ali, Haya Kordi, Ameena Al-Sadi, Anton Popelka, Fatiha Benslimane, Magdi Yacoub, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8, 2021
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute inflammatory lung condition. It is characterized by disruption of gas exchange inside the alveoli, accumulation of protein edema, and an increase in lung stiffness. One major cause of ARDS is a lung infection, such as SARS-COV-2 infection. Lungs of ARDS patients need to be mechanically ventilated for airway reopening. Consequently, ventilation might damage delicate lung tissue leading to excess edema, known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Mortality of COVID-19 patients under VILI seems to be higher than non-COVID patients, necessitating effective preventative therapies. VILI occurs when small air bubbles form in the alveoli, injuring epithelial cells (EPC) due to shear stress. Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation was suggested as a therapy for ARDS, however, it was shown that it is not effective because of the extremely short half-life of NO. In this study, NO-releasing nanoparticles were produced and tested in an in vitro model, representing airways in the deep lung. Cellular injuries were quantified via fluorescent live/dead assay. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess cell morphology. qRT-PCR was performed to assess the expression of inflammatory markers, specifically IL6 and CCL2. ELISA was performed to assess IL6 and confirm qRT-PCR results at the protein level. Finally, ROS levels were assessed in all groups. Here, we show that NO delivery via nanoparticles enhanced EPC survival and recovery, AFM measurements revealed that NO exposure affect cell morphology, while qRT-PCR demonstrated a significant downregulation in IL6 and CCL2 expression when treating the cells to NO both before and after shear exposure. ELISA results for IL6 confirmed qRT-PCR data. ROS experiment results support our findings from previous experiments. These findings demonstrate that NO-releasing nanoparticles can be used as an effective delivery approach of NO to deep lung to prevent/reduce ARDS associated inflammation and cell injuries. This information is particularly useful to treat severe ARDS due to COVID-19 infection. These nanoparticles will be useful when clinically administrated to COVID-19 patients to reduce the symptoms originating from lung distress.
Haitao Wu, Manlin Su, Hui Jin, Xinyu Li, Puyu Wang, Jingxiao Chen, Jinghua Chen, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8, 2020
In this paper, we fabricated rutin-loaded silver nanoparticles (Rutin@AgNPs) as the nano-anticoagulant with antithrombotic function. The serum stability, anticoagulation activity, and bleeding risk of Rutin@AgNPs were evaluated. The results showed Rutin@AgNPs had good serum stability, hemocompatibility, and cytocompatibility. The anticoagulation activity of rutin was maintained, and its stability and aqueous solubility were improved. The Rutin@AgNPs could provide a sustained release to prolong the half-life of rutin. The results of the coagulation parameter assay and thrombus formation test in mice model showed that the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time were prolonged, and Rutin@AgNPs inhibited the thrombosis in the 48 h period. Moreover, the limited bleeding time indicated that the Rutin@AgNPs significantly minimized the hemorrhage risk of rutin. This Rutin@AgNPs is a potential anticoagulant for antithrombotic therapy.
Xueliang Zhang, Wenji Wang, Yongping Wang, Haiyan Zhao, Xingwen Han, Tong Zhao, Peng Qu, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8, 2021
ObjectiveMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) confer therapeutic benefits in various pathologies and cancers by releasing extracellular vesicles (EVs) loaded with bioactive compounds. Herein, we identified bone marrow MSC (BMSC)-derived EVs harboring microRNA (miR)-29b-3p to regulate osteogenic differentiation through effects on the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1)/nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway via targeting of lysine demethylase 5A (KDM5A) in osteoporosis.MethodsWe quantified the miR-29b-3p in BMSC-derived EVs from bone marrow specimens of osteoporotic patients and non-osteoporotic patients during total hip arthroplasty (THA). miR-29b-3p targeting KDM5A was confirmed by promoter luciferase assay, and enrichment of KDM5A in the promoter region of SOCS1 was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression and translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus were detected by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. An ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mouse model was established to further confirm the in vitro findings.ResultsBMSC-derived EVs of osteoporotic patients exhibited downregulated miR-29b-3p. EV-encapsulated miR-29b-3p from BMSCs potentiated osteogenic differentiation by specifically inhibiting KDM5A. KDM5A inhibited osteogenic differentiation by the regulation of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac of SOCS1. SOCS1 potentiated osteogenic differentiation by inhibiting NF-κB pathway.ConclusionEV-encapsulated miR-29b-3p derived from BMSCs potentiated osteogenic differentiation through blockade of the SOCS1/NF-κB pathway by inhibition of KDM5A.
Chaohui Zhou, Zhongyun Chu, Wenyue Hou, Xiuying Wang, Frontiers in Chemistry, 8, 2021
Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted considerable attention in detection of biological analytes and bioimaging owing to their superior optical properties, including high photochemical stability, sharp emission bandwidth, large anti-Stokes shifts, and low toxicity. In this work, we fabricated UCNP-linked immunosorbent assay (ULISA) for the sensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). The design is based on amino-functionalized SiO2-coated Gd-doped NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs@SiO2-NH2) as a direct background-free luminescent reporter; a secondary anti-IgG antibody (Ab2) was conjugated to the surface of UCNPs@SiO2-NH2 (UCNP-Ab2), and UCNP-Ab2 was used for specific targeting of CA19-9. The UCNPs were well characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD, FT-IR, and UV-vis. The detection process was similar to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). UCNPs were used as signal transducer to replace the color compounds for an enzyme-mediated signal amplification step. An anti-CA19-9 primary antibody (Ab1) was fixed for capturing the CA19-9, and the fluorescence signal was obtained from the specific immunoreaction between UCNP-Ab2 and CA19-9. Under optimum conditions, this ULISA shows sensitive detection of CA19-9 with a dynamic range of 5–2,000 U/ml. The ULISA system shows higher detection sensitivity and wider detection range compared with the traditional ELISA for CA19-9 detection. This strategy using UCNPs as signal transducer may pave a new avenue for the exploration of rare doped UCNPs in ELISA assay for clinical applications in the future.
Zhe Wang, Xuefeng Li, Shengli Chen, Jinfeng Dong, Frontiers in Chemistry, 9, 2021
Soft-oxometalates (SOMs) are colloid suspensions of superstructured assemblies of polyoxometalates (POMs) and are found to be very effective photo-catalysts in a number of chemical reactions. The stabilization of SOMs generally requires legends or stabilizers, e.g., polymers and surfactants. In this paper, a light responsive azobenzene surfactant, C10AZOC2N3, was developed and used to stable {Mo132} SOMs. Various techniques such as Dynamic light scattering, TEM, UV-Vis spectra and cyclic voltammetry were employed to characterize the experimental results. The outstanding structure-directing effect of surfactant self-assembly micelles in solution on inorganic counter-anions was demonstrated. Different amount of cyclohexane was solubilized into C10AZOC2N3 micelles to successfully control the size of {Mo132} SOMs cluster. Furthermore, the clusters exposed to UV light for a certain time can be served as a second trigger to control the size of SOMs due to the trans-cis conformation transition of surfactant molecules. The redox potentials of C10AZOC2N3-{Mo132} SOMs were investigated as the cluster size varied. Interestingly, the redox potential of {Mo132} was not affected by the cluster size, indicating that the presence of surfactant did not change the main function of {Mo132} as an electrochemical catalyst, but merely assisted in the size control of SOM aggregation.
Qianqiu Tian, Jiajun Wang, Wendi Xiang, Jun Zhao, Hao Guo, Jing Hu, Xiaopeng Han, Wenbin Hu, Frontiers in Chemistry, 9, 2021
Thermal batteries with a high power density and rapid activation time are crucial for improving the fast response ability of sophisticated weapons. In this study, an Ni-NiCl2 composite was prepared via hydrogen reduction and employed as a cathode material. Discharge tests on a battery assembled using the fabricated composite revealed that its initial internal resistance decreased and the activation time reduced. Notably, the Ni-NiCl2 cathode increased the energy output by 47% (from 6.76 to 9.94 Wh in NiCl2 and Ni-NiCl2, respectively) with a cut-off voltage of 25 V; the power density of the novel battery system reached 11.4 kW/kg. The excellent performance of the thermal battery benefited from the high electrode potential and low internal resistance of Ni-NiCl2. This study contributes to the development of high-performance electrode materials for next-generation thermal battery-related technologies.
Zheng Yanyan, Jing Lin, Liuhong Xie, Hongliang Tang, Kailong Wang, Jiyang Liu, Frontiers in Chemistry, 9, 2021
Simple and efficient synthesis of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with anodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) remains a great challenge. Herein, we present an anodic ECL-sensing platform based on nitrogen-doped GQDs (N-GQDs), which enables sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose. N-GQDs are easily prepared using one-step molecular fusion between carbon precursor and a dopant in an alkaline hydrothermal process. The synthesis is simple, green, and has high production yield. The as-prepared N-GQDs exhibit a single graphene-layered structure, uniform size, and good crystalline. In the presence of H2O2, N-GQDs possess high anodic ECL activity owing to the functional hydrazide groups. With N-GQDs being ECL probes, sensitive detection of H2O2 in the range of 0.3–100.0 μM with a limit of detection or LOD of 63 nM is achieved. As the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase (GOx) produces H2O2, sensitive detection of glucose is also realized in the range of 0.7–90.0 μM (LOD of 96 nM).
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