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This model was found at
1261 locations
The model is used in
53 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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About the Jeol JEM 1200

The model Jeol JEM 1200 was found in 1261 unique locations in 53 countries where it was mentioned from 1990 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as General Medicine, Molecular Biology, General Materials Science, Microbiology, and Cell Biology. The model is also used in General Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Science, Molecular Medicine, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Organic Chemistry, Immunology, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cancer Research, Bioengineering, Drug Discovery, Genetics, General Chemical Engineering, Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, General Neuroscience, General Physics and Astronomy, Medicine, Analytical Chemistry, Oncology, Histology, Catalysis, and Inorganic Chemistry.
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Research that uses the Jeol JEM 1200

Lester D. Bernardino, Gil Nonato C. Santos, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2020, 1-14, 2020
The monoclinic β-gallium oxide (Ga2O3) was viewed as a potential candidate for power electronics due to its excellent material properties. However, its undoped form makes it highly resistive. The Ga2O3/SnO2 nanostructures were synthesized effectively via the horizontal vapor phase growth (HVPG) technique without the use of a magnetic field. Different concentrations of Ga2O3 and SnO2 were varied to analyze and describe the surface morphology and elemental composition of the samples using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, the polytype of the Ga2O3 was confirmed through the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The current-voltage (I–V) characteristics were established using a Keithley 2450 source meter. The resistivity was determined using the van der Pauw technique. The mobility and carrier concentration was done through the Hall effect measurements at room temperature using a 0.30-Tesla magnet. It was observed that there was an increase in the size of the nanostructures, and more globules appeared after the concentration of SnO2 was increased. It was proven that the drop in the resistivity of Ga2O3 was due to the presence of SnO2. The data gathered were supported by the Raman peak located at 662 cm−1, attributed to the high conductivity of β-Ga2O3. However, the ε-polytype was verified to appear as a result of adding SnO2. All the samples were considered as n-type semiconductors. High mobility, low power loss, and low specific on-resistance were attained by the highest concentration of SnO2. Hence, it was clinched as the optimal n-type Ga2O3/SnO2 concentration and recommended to be a potential substrate for power electronics application.
Jiheng Zhan, Xing Li, Dan Luo, Wanying Yan, Yonghui Hou, Yu Hou, Shudong Chen, Jiyao Luan, Qing Zhang, Dingkun Lin, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2021, 1-19, 2021
Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (SCII) is a devastating complication of spinal or thoracic surgical procedures and can lead to paraplegia or quadriplegia. Neuronal cell damage involving mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SCII. Despite the availability of various treatment options, there are currently no mitochondria-targeting drugs that have proven effective against SCII. Polydatin (PD), a glucoside of resveratrol, is known to preserve mitochondrial function in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The aim of the present study was to explore the neuro- and mito-protective functions of PD and its underlying mechanisms. An in vitro model of SCII was established by exposing spinal cord motor neurons (SMNs) to oxygen–glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R), and the cells were treated with different dosages of PD for varying durations. PD improved neuronal viability and protected against OGD/R-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial injury in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PD restored the activity of neuronal mitochondria in terms of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular calcium levels, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Mechanistically, PD downregulated Keap1 and upregulated Nrf2, NQO-1, and HO-1 in the OGD/R-treated SMNs. Likewise, PD treatment also reversed the neuronal and mitochondrial damage induced by SCII in a mouse model. Furthermore, the protective effects of PD were partially blocked by the Nrf2 inhibitor. Taken together, PD relieves mitochondrial dysfunction-induced neuronal cell damage by activating the Nrf2/ARE pathway and is a suitable therapeutic option for SCII.
Wasana Kosorn, Patcharaporn Wutticharoenmongkol, International Journal of Polymer Science, 2021, 1-18, 2021
The scaffolds of poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PCL/PHBV) blends were fabricated from fused deposition modeling. From indirect cytotoxicity testing based on mouse fibroblasts, all scaffolds with various blend ratios were nontoxic to cells. The surface-treated scaffold with a blend ratio of 25/75 PCL/PHBV exhibited the highest proliferation of porcine chondrocytes and total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) after 21 days of culture. The scaffolds with a blend ratio of 25/75 with local pores (LP) were prepared from FDM along with a salt leaching technique using NaCl as porogens. The effect of NaOH in surface treatment on the biological property of scaffolds was investigated. The scaffolds with LP and with 1 M NaOH surface treatment exhibited the highest proliferation of cells and total GAGs after 28 days of culture. The degradation behaviors of the scaffolds were studied. The nonsurface treated, surface treated without LP, and surface treated with LP scaffolds were degraded in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) for 30 days at 37°C and 50°C for nonenzymatic condition and at 37°C for enzymatic condition. The surface treated with LP scaffold showed the highest amount of weight loss, followed by the surface treated without LP, and the nonsurface-treated scaffolds without LP, respectively. The results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated degradation of PCL and PHBV through hydrolysis of the ester functional group. The compressive strengths of all scaffolds were sufficiently high. The results suggested that the scaffolds with the existence of LP and with surface treatment showed the highest potential for use as cartilage scaffolds.
Sivan Laviad-Shitrit, Ido Izhaki, William B. Whitman, Nicole Shapiro, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C. Kyrpides, Malka Halpern, PeerJ, 8, e8822, 2020
Background Rosenbergiella nectarea strain 8N4T, the type species of the genus Rosenbergiella, was isolated from Amygdalus communis (almond) floral nectar. Other strains of this species were isolated from the floral nectar of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), Nicotiana glauca (tobacco tree) and from Asphodelus aestivus. R. nectarea strain 8N4T is a Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Results Here we describe features of this organism, together with its genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 47.38%, the assembly size is 3,294,717 bp, and the total number of genes are 3,346. The genome discloses the possible role that this species may play in the plant. The genome contains both virulence genes, like pectin lyase and hemolysin, that may harm plant cells and genes that are predicted to produce volatile compounds that may impact the visitation rates by nectar consumers, such as pollinators and nectar thieves. Conclusions The genome of R. nectarea strain 8N4T reveals a mutualistic interaction with the plant host and a possible effect on plant pollination and fitness.
Maria Peralta, Silvia Mendieta, Ivana Scolari, Gladys Granero, Monica Crivello, 2020
Abstract Carbamazepine (CBZ) was incorporated into Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) to be used as controlled drug delivery in solid tumors. CBZ has a formal charge of 0, which implies a challenge to be incorporated in the anionic clay. Aiming to overcome this problem, CBZ was first incorporated in micelles of sodium cholate (SC), a surfactant with negative charge. CBZ in SC micelles and, for comparison, free CBZ were incorporated in LDH by reconstruction method. It was found that resultant nano-composites had similar CBZ encapsulation efficiency, around 75 %, but drug release in simulated body fluid (pH 7.4) and acetate buffer (pH 4.8) was efficient only with the LDH-CBZ sample. CBZ dimensions were measured with Chem3D and, according to the basal spacing obtained from X rays patterns, it can arrange as monolayer with the long axis parallel to the LDH layers. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the incorporation of the drug. Thermogravimetric analyses showed and enhanced thermal stability for CBZ. These results have interesting implications since they increase the spectrum of LDH application as controlled drug delivery to a large number of non-ionic drugs, without the addition of other components.
Jiaping Zhou, Qiaomei Zhou, Gaofeng Shu, Xiaojie Wang, Yuanfei Lu, Haiyan Chen, Tingting Hu, Jinsong Cai, Yongzhong Du, Risheng Yu, 2020
Abstract Background: Effective treatment and early diagnosis is essential for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the utilization of AFP/Fth as an endogenous contrast agent for the early diagnosis of liver cancers. The transfection of AFP/Fth also leads to a considerable upregulation of transferrin receptors (TfR), which might be a potential target for an enhanced delivery of nanomedicines. However, there is no information regarding the utilization of overexpressed TfR for the treatment of liver cancers. Thus, the objective of our study was to investigate whether the transfection of AFP/Fth could be used for the early diagnosis, but also for an enhanced treatment of live cancers. Results: It was found that both of ferritin and TfR were upregulated after the transfection of AFP/Fth plasmid. The transfected cells showed a higher uptake of ferric ion than the un-transfected ones, resulting in a lower T2WI intensity. This result was due to the upregulation of ferritin in transfected cells, suggesting that transfection of AFP/Fth plasmid could be a potential strategy for early diagnosis of liver cancer. As compared with the un-transfected cells, the transfected cells showed a higher uptake of transferrin-modified liposomes, which was due to the specific interaction between transferrin with TfR overexpressed on the transfected cells. This is also the reason why the transferrin modified doxorubicin loaded liposomes (Tf-LP/DOX) showed better in vitro and in vivo anticancer ability than the LP/DOX. This results also suggested that transfection of AFP/Fth could result in an enhanced therapy of liver cancer. Conclusions: Transfection of AFP/Fth could be used for the early diagnosis, but also for an enhanced treatment of live cancers.
Hiroki Yamamoto, Yuki Fukasawa, Yu Shoji, Shumpei Hisamoto, Tomohiro Kikuchi, Atsuko Takamatsu, Hideo Iwasaki, 2020
Abstract Background Bacteria have been reported to exhibit complicated morphological colony patterns on solid media, depending on intracellular, and extracellular factors such as motility, cell propagation, and cell-cell interaction. We isolated the filamentous cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena sp. NIES-4403 (Pseudanabaena, hereafter), that forms scattered (discrete) migrating colonies on solid media. While the scattered colony pattern has been observed in some bacterial species, the mechanism underlying such a pattern still remains obscure. Results We studied the morphology of Pseudanabaena migrating collectively and found that this species forms randomly scattered clusters varying in size and further consists of a mixture of comet-like wandering clusters and rotating disks. Quantitative analysis of the formation of these wandering and rotating clusters showed that bacterial filaments tend to follow trajectories of previously migrating filaments at velocities that are dependent on filament length. Collisions between filaments occurred without crossing paths, which enhanced their nematic alignments, giving rise to bundle-like colonies. As cells increased and bundles aggregated, comet-like wandering clusters developed. The direction and velocity of the movement of cells in comet-like wandering clusters were highly coordinated. When the wandering clusters entered into a circular orbit, they turned into rotating disks, maintaining a more stable location. Disks may rotate for days, and the speed of cells within a rotating disk increases from the center to the outmost part of the disk. Using a minimal agent-based model, we reproduced some features of Pseudanabaena migrating clusters. Conclusion Based on these observations, we propose that Pseudanabaena forms scattered migrating colonies that undergo a series of transitions involving several morphological patterns. A minimal agent-based model is able to reconstruct some features of the observed migrating clusters.
Zhiqiang Ou, Qi Zhou, Xin Rao, Haifeng Yang, Chunqing Huo, Xueyu Du, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 9, 2021
Waste rubber wood (RW) is the castoff of rubber plantation with abundant reservation but without high-value utilization. In this study, cellulose with high purity has been efficiently isolated from waste RW and further processed into cellulose nanocrystals. By means of acetylation, more hydrophobic cellulose-based products, namely acetylated rubber wood cellulose (Ac–RWC) and acetylated rubber wood cellulose nanocrystals (Ac–RW–CNC) had been attempted as reinforcing fillers for fabricating two series of PLA-based composite films via spin coating instead of currently prevailing melt compounding technique. To ensure a uniformed dispersion of fillers in PLA matrix, the addition of reinforcing filler should be equal to or less than 5% based on the film dry weight. Compared with pure PLA film, the Ac–RWC reinforced PLA composite films are more thermally stable, while the Ac–RW–CNC reinforced PLA composite films on the other hand exhibit more enhanced performance in mechanical properties and the degree of crystallinity. The highest tensile strength (55.0 MPa) and Young’s modulus (3.9 GPa) were achieved for 5%Ac–RW–CNC/PLA composite film.
Anbazhagan Sathiyaseelan, Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Arokia Vijay Anand Mariadoss, Myeong-Hyeon Wang, Antibiotics, 10, 524 (5), 2021
Diabetic and anemia-associated diabetic wounds increase the considerable morbidity and mortality in people, as reported by clinical studies. However, no anemia-associated diabetic wound dressing materials have been developed until now. Hence, this study aimed to develop a nanocomposite scaffold composed of chitosan (CS), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and phytogenic iron oxide nanoparticles (FeO NPs), for accelerated anemia-associated diabetic wound healing. The aqueous leaves extract of Pinus densiflora (PD) was utilized for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (FeO NPs). TEM and elemental analysis confirmed smaller size PD-FeO NPs (<50 nm) synthesis with the combination of iron and oxide. In addition, in vitro biological studies displayed the moderate antioxidant, antidiabetic activities, and considerable antibacterial activity of PD-FeO NPs. Further, the different concentrations of PD-FeO NPs (0.01, 0.03, and 0.05%) incorporated CS/PVA nanocomposites sponges were developed by the freeze-drying method. The porous structured morphology and the presence of PD-FeO NPs were observed under FE-SEM. Among nanocomposite sponges, PD-FeO NPs (0.01%) incorporated CS/PVA sponges were further chosen for the in vitro wound-healing assay, based on the porous and water sorption nature. Furthermore, the in vitro wound-healing assay revealed that PD-FeO NPs (0.01%) incorporated CS/PVA has significantly increased the cell proliferation in HEK293 cells. In conclusion, the CS/PVA-PD-FeO NPs (0.01%) sponge would be recommended for diabetic wound dressing after a detailed in vivo evaluation.
Vinayagam Ramachandran, Mariadoss Arokia Vijaya Anand, Ernest David, Karthikkumar Venkatachalam, Shalini Vijayakumar, Vijayalakshmi Sankaran, Agilan Balupillai, Casimeer C. Sangeetha, K. M. Gothandam, Venkata Subbaiah Kotakadi, Alaa Ghidan, Tawfiq Al Antary, Baojun Xu, Antioxidants, 9, 8 (1), 2019
We synthesized the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using wedelolactone (WDL) and characterized them using UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), transmission electron microscopic (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies. The electronic spectrum exhibited an absorption peak at 535 nm. The FT-IR results proved that WDL was stabilized on the surface of AuNPs by acting as a capping or reducing agent. The crystalline structure was affirmed by XRD pattern and the spherical shape of WDL-AuNPs was evidenced by SEM, TEM, and AFM. The synthesized WDL-AuNPS were evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in pancreatic RIN-5F cell lines. In vitro results showed that WDL-AuNPs did not only improve the insulin secretion affected by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), but also the cell viability in RIN5F cells. WDL-AuNPs treatment modulates the pro-apoptotic proteins and anti-apoptotic proteins expression to prevent the cells undergoing apoptosis in DEHP-exposed RIN-5F cells. The exposure of DEHP causes an increase in ROS production and lipid peroxidation levels. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of WDL-AuNPs increase the deleterious effect caused by DEHP. On the other side, WDL-AuNPs increase mRNA expressions of insulin-signaling proteins in RIN-5F cells. This study concludes that WDL-AuNPs can be successfully used to regulate the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, reduce lipid peroxidation, and to improve the secretion of antioxidants and insulin through the GLUT2 pathway in RIN-5F cell lines.
Sohair Aly Hassan, Ali Mohamed El Hagrassi, Olfat Hammam, Abdelmohsen M. Soliman, Essam Ezzeldin, Wessam Magdi Aziz, Biomolecules, 10, 1650 (12), 2020
Detoxification is one of the main vital tasks performed by the liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mustard in its normal or nanoparticles could confer a protective/therapeutic effect against TAA-induced acute liver failure in experimental animal models. Mustard ethanolic extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS. To induce liver failure, male rats were injected with 350 mg/kg bw TAA IP, then treated orally with a dose of 100 mg/kg for 15 d of mustard extract and its nanoform before and following induction. The levels of serum liver functions, total cholesterol (TCHo), total glyceride (TG), total bilirubin (TBIL), hepatic malonaldhyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO),glutathione (GSH), sodium oxide dismutase (SOD), as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α,) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), were estimated. DNA genotoxicity and hepatic pathology, and immunohistologic (IHC) changes were assayed. The antioxidant content of Phenolic acids, flavonoids in mustard ethanolic extract substantially decreased the levels of ALT, AST, ALP and rehabilitated the histopathological alterations. In addition, nanoforms of mustard ethanol extract have notably increased the levels of GSH, SOD and significantly reduced the levels of MDA. The expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum and tissue were markedly downregulated. DNA genotoxicity was significantly reversed. Mustard introduced a protective and medicinal effect against TAA in both its forms.
Neslihan Idil, Monireh Bakhshpour, Işık Perçin, Bo Mattiasson, Biosensors, 11, 140 (5), 2021
Over the past few decades, a significant increase in multi-drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms has been of great concern and directed the research subject to the challenges that the distribution of resistance genes represent. Globally, high levels of multi-drug resistance represent a significant health threat and there is a growing requirement of rapid, accurate, real-time detection which plays a key role in tracking of measures for the infections caused by these bacterial strains. It is also important to reduce transfer of resistance genes to new organisms. The, World Health Organization has informed that millions of deaths have been reported each year recently. To detect the resistant organisms traditional detection approaches face limitations, therefore, newly developed technologies are needed that are suitable to be used in large-scale applications. In the present study, the aim was to design a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with micro-contact imprinted sensor chips for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus. Whole cell imprinting was performed by N-methacryloyl-L-histidine methyl ester (MAH) under UV polymerization. Sensing experiments were done within a concentration range of 1.0 × 102–2.0 × 105 CFU/mL. The recognition of S. aureus was accomplished by the involvement of microcontact imprinting and optical sensor technology with a detection limit of 1.5 × 103 CFU/mL. Selectivity of the generated sensor was evaluated through injections of competing bacterial strains. The responses for the different strains were compared to that of S. aureus. Besides, real experiments were performed with milk samples spiked with S. aureus and it was demonstrated that the prepared sensor platform was applicable for real samples.
Wucan Liu, Yongnan Liu, Kabozya M. Mardochee, Zhikun Wang, Shucheng Wang, Wei Yu, Jianjun Zhang, Wenfeng Han, Catalysts, 10, 355 (3), 2020
SrF2 promotes the dehydrochlorination (DeHCl) of 1,1-difluoro-1-chloroethane, which is the key process for the manufacture of VDF (vinylidene fluoride), one of the most typical fluorinated monomers. However, the selectivity is low as dehydrofluorination (DeHF) to VCF (vinylidene chlorofluoride) competes with the formation of VDF. In this study, SrF2@C (SrF2 embedded in carbon) and SrF2@NC (N-doped carbon) catalysts were fabricated following calcination in N2 with SrC2O4, PVDF (poly vinylidene fluoride) and urea as the precursors. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and XPS. The results show that both the calcination temperature and N-doping play an important role in the conversion of HCFC-142b and the selectivity to VDF and VCF. Calcination at elevated temperatures enhances the Sr-C interaction. For SrF2@C, improved interaction facilitates withdrawing electrons from Sr by the carbon support. By contrast, the strong interaction of Sr with N-doped carbon supply electrons from N species to Sr. The electron deficiency of Sr is favorable for the adsorption of F with higher electronegativity and consequently, DeHF reaction forming VCF. The supply of electrons to Sr by the support improves the formation of VDF (DeHCl). The present work provides a potential strategy for the improvement of selectivity to the target product.
Shigeru Iwata, Mingzeng Zhang, He Hao, Gulzhan Trimova, Maiko Hajime, Yusuke Miyazaki, Naoaki Ohkubo, Yurie Satoh Kanda, Yasuyuki Todoroki, Hiroko Miyata, Masanobu Ueno, Atsushi Nagayasu, Shingo Nakayamada, Kei Sakata, Yoshiya Tanaka, Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 2020
Recent reports have shown the importance of IFN-γ and T-bet+ B cells in the pathology of SLE, suggesting the involvement of IFN-γ-producing T-bet+ CD4+ cells, i.e., Th1 cells. This study determined the changes in Th1 subsets with metabolic shift and their potential as therapeutic targets in SLE. Compared with healthy donors, patients with SLE had higher numbers of T-bethiCXCR3lo effector cells and T-bet+Foxp3lo non-suppressive cells, which excessively produce IFN-γ, and lower number of non-IFN-γ-producing T-bet+Foxp3hi activated-Treg cells. These changes were considered to be involved in treatment resistance. The differentiation mechanism of Th1 subsets was investigated in vitro using memory CD4+ cells obtained from healthy donors and patients with SLE. In memory CD4+ cells of healthy donors, both rapamycin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) suppressed T-bet+Foxp3- cells, and induced T-bet+Foxp3+(lo/hi) cells. Rapamycin induced IFN-γ-producing T-bet+Foxp3lo cells accompanied with enhanced lipid metabolism, whereas 2DG induced IFN-γ-non-producing T-bet+Foxp3hi cells. In memory CD4+ cells of SLE patients, inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, but not β-oxidation, suppressed IFN-γ production, and up-regulated of Foxp3 expression in T-bet+Foxp3+ cells. Metabolic regulators such as fatty acid synthesis inhibitors may improve the pathological status by correcting Th1 subset imbalance and overproduction of IFN-γ in SLE.
Yuxiang Yan, Hua Yang, Zao Yi, Tao Xian, Catalysts, 9, 795 (10), 2019
In this work, we have synthesized BiOCl nanoplates (diameter 140–220 nm, thickness 60–70 nm) via a co-precipitation method, and then created Bi nanoparticles (diameter 35–50 nm) on the surface of BiOCl nanoplates via a NaBH4 reduction method. By varying the NaBH4 concentration and reaction time, the evolution of Bi nanoparticles was systematically investigated. It is demonstrated that with increasing the NaBH4 concentration (at a fixing reaction time of 30 min), BiOCl crystals are gradually reduced into Bi nanoparticles, and pure Bi nanoparticles are formed at 120 mM NaBH4 solution treatment. At low-concentration NaBH4 solutions (e.g., 10 and 30 mM), with increasing the reaction time, BiOCl crystals are partially reduced into Bi nanoparticles, and then the Bi nanoparticles return to form BiOCl crystals. At high-concentration NaBH4 solutions (e.g., 120 mM), BiOCl crystals are reduced to Bi nanoparticles completely with a short reaction time, and further prolong the treatment time leads to the transformation of the Bi nanoparticles into a two-phase mixture of BiOCl and Bi2O3 nanowires. The photodegradation performances of the samples were investigated by choosing rhodamine B (RhB) as the model pollutant and using simulated sunlight as the light source. It is demonstrated that an enhanced photodegradation performance can be achieved for the created Bi@BiOCl hybrid composites with appropriate NaBH4 treatment. The underlying photocatalytic mechanism was systematically investigated and discussed.
Zijing Wang, Ruopeng Cai, Gang Wang, Zhimin Guo, Xiao Liu, Yuan Guan, Yalu Ji, Hao Zhang, Hengyu Xi, Rihong Zhao, Lanting Bi, Shanshan Liu, Li Yang, Xin Feng, Changjiang Sun, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu, Frontiers in Microbiology, 12, 2021
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is an important nosocomial and community acquired opportunistic pathogen which causes various infections. The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae and carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) has brought more severe challenge to the treatment of K. pneumoniae infection. In this study, a novel bacteriophage that specifically infects K. pneumoniae was isolated and named as vB_KpnM_P-KP2 (abbreviated as P-KP2). The biological characteristics of P-KP2 and the bioinformatics of its genome were analyzed, and then the therapeutic effect of P-KP2 was tested by animal experiments. P-KP2 presents high lysis efficiency in vitro. The genome of P-KP2 shows homology with nine phages which belong to “KP15 virus” family and its genome comprises 172,138 bp and 264 ORFs. Besides, P-KP2 was comparable to gentamicin in the treatment of lethal pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae W-KP2 (K47 serotype). Furthermore, the combined treatment of P-KP2 and gentamicin completely rescued the infected mice. Therefore, this study not only introduces a new member to the phage therapeutic library, but also serves as a reference for other phage-antibiotic combinations to combat MDR pathogens.
Elia Bari, Sara Perteghella, Dario Di Silvestre, Marzio Sorlini, Laura Catenacci, Milena Sorrenti, Giorgio Marrubini, Rossana Rossi, Giuseppe Tripodo, Pierluigi Mauri, Mario Marazzi, Maria Torre, Cells, 7, 190 (11), 2018
In this paper, a pilot production process for mesenchymal stem/stromal freeze-dried secretome was performed in a validated good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant cell factory. Secretome was purified from culture supernatants by ultrafiltration, added to cryoprotectant, lyophilized and characterized. We obtained a freeze-dried, “ready-off-the-shelf” and free soluble powder containing extracellular vesicles and proteins. In the freeze-dried product, a not-aggregated population of extracellular vesicles was detected by nanoparticle tracking analysis; Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the simultaneous presence of protein and lipids, while differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that lyophilization process successfully occurred. A proteomic characterization allowed the identification of proteins involved in immune response, response to stress, cytoskeleton and metabolism. Moreover, the product was not cytotoxic up to concentrations of 25 mg/mL (on human fibroblasts, chondrocytes and nucleus pulposus cells by MTT assay) and was blood compatible up to 150 mg/mL. Finally, at concentrations between 5 and 50 mg/mL, freeze-dried secretome showed to in vitro counteract the oxidative stress damage induced by H2O2 on nucleus pulposus cells by MTT assay.
Natalia Saiz-Ros, Rafal Czapiewski, Ilaria Epifano, Andrew Stevenson, Selene Swanson, Charles Dixon, Dario Zamora, Marion McElwee, Swetha Vijayakrishnan, Christine Richardson, Li Dong, David Kelly, Lior Pytowski, Martin Goldberg, Laurence Florens, Sheila Graham, Eric Schirmer, Cells, 8, 120 (2), 2019
The primary envelopment/de-envelopment of Herpes viruses during nuclear exit is poorly understood. In Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), proteins pUL31 and pUL34 are critical, while pUS3 and some others contribute; however, efficient membrane fusion may require additional host proteins. We postulated that vesicle fusion proteins present in the nuclear envelope might facilitate primary envelopment and/or de-envelopment fusion with the outer nuclear membrane. Indeed, a subpopulation of vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB), a known vesicle trafficking protein, was present in the nuclear membrane co-locating with pUL34. VAPB knockdown significantly reduced both cell-associated and supernatant virus titers. Moreover, VAPB depletion reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of virus particles and increased levels of nuclear encapsidated viral DNA. These results suggest that VAPB is an important player in the exit of primary enveloped HSV-1 virions from the nucleus. Importantly, VAPB knockdown did not alter pUL34, calnexin or GM-130 localization during infection, arguing against an indirect effect of VAPB on cellular vesicles and trafficking. Immunogold-labelling electron microscopy confirmed VAPB presence in nuclear membranes and moreover associated with primary enveloped HSV-1 particles. These data suggest that VAPB could be a cellular component of a complex that facilitates UL31/UL34/US3-mediated HSV-1 nuclear egress.
Flavia Franco da Cunha, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Danilo Candido de Almeida, Tamiris Borges da Silva, Cristiane Naffah de Souza Breda, Mario Costa Cruz, Eliana L. Faquim-Mauro, Marcos Antonio Cenedeze, Meire Ioshie Hiyane, Alvaro Pacheco-Silva, Regiane Aparecida Cavinato, Ana Claudia Torrecilhas, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Cells, 9, 1059 (4), 2020
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can generate immunological tolerance due to their regulatory activity in many immune cells. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) release is a pivotal mechanism by which MSCs exert their actions. In this study, we evaluate whether mesenchymal stromal cell extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) can modulate T cell response. MSCs were expanded and EVs were obtained by differential ultracentrifugation of the supernatant. The incorporation of MSC-EVs by T cells was detected by confocal microscopy. Expression of surface markers was detected by flow cytometry or CytoFLEX and cytokines were detected by RT-PCR, FACS and confocal microscopy and a miRNA PCR array was performed. We demonstrated that MSC-EVs were incorporated by lymphocytes in vitro and decreased T cell proliferation and Th1 differentiation. Interestingly, in Th1 polarization, MSC-EVs increased Foxp3 expression and generated a subpopulation of IFN-γ+/Foxp3+T cells with suppressive capacity. A differential expression profile of miRNAs in MSC-EVs-treated Th1 cells was seen, and also a modulation of one of their target genes, TGFbR2. MSC-EVs altered the metabolism of Th1-differentiated T cells, suggesting the involvement of the TGF-β pathway in this metabolic modulation. The addition of MSC-EVs in vivo, in an OVA immunization model, generated cells Foxp3+. Thus, our findings suggest that MSC-EVs are able to specifically modulate activated T cells at an alternative regulatory profile by miRNAs and metabolism shifting.
Shangyuan Tang, Yushen Cao, Chunming Xu, Yue Wu, Lingci Li, Peng Ye, Ying Luo, Yifan Gao, Yonghong Liao, Qiong Yan, Xiyu Cheng, Energies, 13, 948 (4), 2020
Energy crops are not easily converted by microorganisms because of their recalcitrance. This necessitates a pretreatment to improve their biodigestibility. The effects of different pretreatments, as well as their combination on the enzymatic digestibility of Arundo donax L. were systematically investigated to evaluate its potential for bioconversion. Dilute alkaline pretreatment (ALP) using 1.2% NaOH at 120 °C for 30 min resulted in the highest reducing sugar yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis process because of its strong delignification and morphological modification, while ferric chloride pretreatment (FP) was effective in removing hemicellulose and recovering soluble sugars in the pretreatment stage. Furthermore, an efficient two-step ferric chloride-alkaline pretreatment (FALP) was successfully developed. In the first FP step, easily degradable cellulosic components, especially hemicellulose, were dissolved and then effectively recovered as soluble sugars. Subsequently, the FP sample was further treated in the second ALP step to remove lignin to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of the hardly degradable cellulose. As a result, the integrated two-step process obtained the highest total sugar yield of 420.4 mg/g raw stalk in the whole pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process; hence, the process is a valuable candidate for biofuel production.
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