Hologic QDR 4500
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whole-body scanner, densitometer, scanner, instrument, densitometer, densitometer, fan beam densitometer, device
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About the Hologic QDR 4500The model Hologic QDR 4500 was found in 582 unique locations in 41 countries where it was mentioned from 2001 until recently. It is used by scientists in various research fields such as Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Nutrition and Dietetics, General Medicine, Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, and Medicine. The model is also used in Endocrinology, Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health, Rheumatology, Internal Medicine, Genetics, Food Science, Physiology, Surgery, Physiology (medical), Geriatrics and Gerontology, Genetics (clinical), General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Immunology, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation, Immunology and Allergy, Molecular Biology, Oncology, Neurology (clinical), Aging, Gastroenterology, Histology, Biochemistry, Cancer Research, and Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine.
Research that uses the Hologic QDR 4500
The need to maintain body lean as cats age is shown in both health and disease. In healthy cats, body lean is associated with enhanced movement and overall longevity. In many disease states (i.e., renal disease, obesity), an enhanced or minimally maximal support of body lean is associated with quality of life and is a nutritional goal in aiding in the management of the disease. This study was designed to investigate the effect of these two dietary components and their combination on body composition and circulating factors of health, including metabolomics analysis and cytokine concentration. The foods that were fed for 169 days to four groups of cats and consisted of control food (formulated to meet the nutritional needs of all adult cats), carnitine-enhanced food (control food plus 300 mg/kg L-carnitine), carnosine-enhanced food (control food plus 1000 mg/kg carnosine), and food enhanced with both (control plus 300 mg/kg carnitine and 1000 mg/kg carnosine). Dietary enhancement with L-carnitine and carnosine increased body lean at the end of the study compared to the cats consuming the control food or the combination food. The cats consuming L-carnitine alone had a decreased concentration of circulating cytokines, while those consuming the combination food had an increased concentration of glucose, pyruvate, succinate, and circulating cytokines.
Sarcopenia has attracted interest due to its impact on various health problems. Chronic inflammation is an important contributor to sarcopenia. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which is a novel inflammatory marker, and muscle mass. This study included 15,579 adults from the 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. Low skeletal muscle mass index (LSMI) was defined as body mass index-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass less than 0.789 for men and 0.512 for women. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the highest ALP tertile was significantly associated with LSMI compared with the lowest ALP tertile in both men [Odds ratio (OR): 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.91] and women (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.00–2.10) after adjusting for other confounders. On the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the predictive power was significantly higher for ALP levels than for white blood cell count in women (p < 0.001), whereas the difference was not significant in men (p = 0.515). Our findings suggest the potential use of serum ALP as an inflammatory marker and a predictor of sarcopenia.
Vitamin B6 plays a crucial role as a cofactor in various enzymatic reactions but bacteria-produced vitamin B6 is not sufficient to meet host requirements. Our objective was to assess the impact of diet-derived vitamin B6 on gut microbiota and host serum metabolomics. Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 47) were fed a control, low B6 (LB6) or high B6 (HB6) diet for six weeks. Serum and cecal samples were collected for biochemical, metabolomics and gut microbiota profiling. There was a significant sex effect for gut microbiota and several metabolic markers. Bodyweight and percent body fat were significantly reduced in LB6 compared to control and HB6 rats. Microbial beta-diversity differed significantly between LB6 and the control and HB6 rats in both sexes. Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group and Bacteroides were the primary taxa driving the difference between LB6 and control. There was a significant separation of cecal and serum metabolites of LB6 compared to control and HB6 rats. In the cecum, arginine biosynthesis was impaired, while vitamin B6 metabolism, lysine degradation and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism were impaired in serum metabolite profiles. Cecal propionate and butyrate were significantly reduced in LB6 rats irrespective of sex. Host vitamin B6 deficiency but not excess significantly alters gut microbial composition and its metabolites.
Pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) early in life increases risk of obesity. Prebiotics can reduce fat mass and improve metabolic health. We examined if co-administering prebiotic with PAT reduces obesity risk in rat pups weaned onto a high fat/sucrose diet. Pups were randomized to (1) control [CTR], (2) antibiotic [ABT] (azithromycin), (3) prebiotic [PRE] (10% oligofructose (OFS)), (4) antibiotic + prebiotic [ABT + PRE]. Pulses of antibiotics/prebiotics were administered at d19–21, d28–30 and d37–39. Male and female rats given antibiotics (ABT) had higher body weight than all other groups at 10 wk of age. The PAT phenotype was stronger in ABT males than females, where increased fat mass, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were present and all reversible with prebiotics. Reduced hypothalamic and hepatic expression of insulin receptor substrates and ileal tight junction proteins was seen in males only, explaining their greater insulin resistance. In females, insulin resistance was improved with prebiotics and normalized to lean control. ABT reduced Lactobacillaceae and increased Bacteroidaceae in both sexes. Using a therapeutic dose of an antibiotic commonly used for acute infection in children, PAT increased body weight and impaired insulin production and insulin sensitivity. The effects were reversed with prebiotic co-administration in a sex-specific manner.
Our objective was to identify sex-specific age 5- to 17-year body composition (body mass index (BMI), % body fat, fat mass index, fat-free mass index) trajectories, compare trajectories assigned using age 5 (AGE5) data to those assigned using all available (ALL) data, and compare BMI assignments to other body composition assignments. Cluster analysis was used to identify low, medium, and high trajectories from body composition measures obtained from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at 5, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17 years in a birth cohort followed longitudinally (n = 469). Moderate agreement was observed for comparisons between AGE5 data and ALL data cluster assignments for each body composition measure. Agreement between cluster assignments for BMI and other body composition measures was stronger using ALL data than using AGE5 data. Our results suggest that BMI, % body fat, fat mass index, and fat free mass index trajectories are established during early childhood, and that BMI is a reasonable predictor of body composition appropriate to track obesity in public health and clinical settings.
Background: In this study, the light output of a cadmium tungstate (CdWO4) single crystal was measured under various X-ray radiographic energies. Methods: A CdWO4 single crystal (10 × 10 × 10 mm3) was exposed to X-rays in the 50–130 kVp range. Measurements were evaluated against published data for single crystals of equal dimensions (CaF2:Eu and Lu3Al5O12:Ce). Since the crystal was examined for application in medical imaging detectors, the emitted optical spectrum was classified with respect to the spectral compatibility of numerous commercial optical sensors. Results: The luminescence efficiency (LE) was found to constantly increase with X-ray energy and was higher than that of CaF2:Eu for energies above 90 kVp. However, the efficiency of the previously published Lu3Al5O12:Ce was found to be constantly higher than that of CdWO4. The light emitted from CdWO4 can be optimally detected by certain charge-coupled devices (CCDs), amorphous silicon photodiodes, and photocathodes. Conclusions: The high density (7.9 g/cm3) of CdWO4 and the luminescence signal of this material make it suitable for medical imaging (such as dual energy), high-energy physics or for applications of scintillators in harsh environments.
Osteoporosis is a rising health threat in the increasingly aging world population. It is a common skeletal disease strongly linked to genetic predisposition. We aim to identify the effects of the anti-inflammatory TGF-β1- and IL-10-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) combination on the risk for osteoporosis. We investigated and analyzed the relationships between three TGF-β1 SNPs (−509C/T, +869 T/C and +29T/C), one IL-10 SNP (+1927A/C) and the level of bone mineral density (BMD), as well as the risk of osteoporosis in Taiwanese osteoporotic patients. A total of 217 subjects were recruited, including 88 osteoporotic patients and 129 healthy controls, for SNPs, BMD and clinical characteristics statistical analyses. Females with TGF-β1 SNP (−509 C/C) and IL-10 SNP (+1927 C/C) genotypes showed a great benefit for femoral neck T-scores. However, the combination of TGF-β1 SNP (−509 T/T) and IL-10 SNP (+1927 A/A) genotypes in all subjects showed a significant decrease in total hip BMD T-scores. The TGF-β1 SNP (−509 C/T) genotype in all subjects and TGF-β1 SNP (−509 T/T) and IL-10 SNP (+1927 A/C) genotypes in males showed positive effects on body height. The combination of the many SNPs in the anti-inflammatory TGF-β1 and IL-10 genes may be cooperatively involved in the development of osteoporosis. Our data suggested that the specific SNP combination of TGF-β1 (−509) and IL-10 (+1927) may act as a predictive factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Taiwanese women.
Aims This study aimed to examine the effect of a 12-week vitamin D supplementation and exercise training alone and in combination on glycemic control and bone health in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.MethodsSixty-one type 2 diabetes patients (age, 33–65 years; 72.0% men) with non-insulin dependence were randomized into the 12-week vitamin D group (1000 IU/day), exercise group (60%–80% of maximal heart rate, 1 h/time, 2–3 times/week), vitamin D combined with exercise group, and control group. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was used to estimate glycemic control. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to examine bone health (bone mass content and bone mass density) and body fat percentage (%).Results During the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, lower glucose and higher insulin levels were found in the vitamin D combined with exercise group, vitamin D group, and exercise group after intervention than before intervention, although the differences were not statistically significant. A significant exercise and vitamin D interaction for the insulinogenic index (P = 0.032) and a borderline interaction for the glucose disposition index (P = 0.051) were observed, while no further independent effect was observed. Compared with non-vitamin D supplementation, vitamin D supplementation significantly alleviated the loss of total bone mass content (95% CI: -29.9–19.4 vs. -74.9–-24.7), trunk bone mass content (95% CI: -24.1–19.5 vs. -56.1–-11.7), and spine bone mass density (95% CI: -0.03–0.03 vs. -0.07–-0.01).ConclusionsThe findings suggest that 12-week combined vitamin D and exercise intervention has a potentially positive effect on glycemic control, and vitamin D supplementation plays an important role in the prevention of bone loss, which was identified in the exercise alone group. Further studies are needed to elucidate the long-term effect of combined vitamin D and exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes patients.The study was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial System (No. ChiCTR1800015383).
How different measures of adiposity are similarly or differentially related to mobility limitation and mortality is not clear. In total, 5849 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years (mean age: 72 years) were followed mortality over 10 years and self-reported mobility limitations (any difficulty walking 2–3 blocks or with climbing 10 steps) at six contacts over 14 years. Baseline measures of adiposity included weight, BMI and percent fat by DXA. Appendicular lean mass (ALM, by DXA) was analyzed as ALM/ht2. Proportional hazards models estimated the risk of mortality, and repeated measures generalized estimating equations estimated the likelihood of mobility limitation. Over 10 years, 27.9% of men died; over 14 years, 48.0% of men reported at least one mobility limitation. We observed U-shaped relationships between weight, BMI, percent fat and ALM/ht2 with mortality. There was a clear log-linear relationship between weight, BMI and percent fat with incident mobility limitation, with higher values associated with a greater likelihood of mobility limitation. In contrast, there was a U-shaped relationship between ALM/ht2 and incident mobility limitation. These observational data suggest that no single measure of adiposity or body composition reflects both the lowest risk of mortality and the lowest likelihood for developing mobility limitation in older men.
(1) Background: The aim of the work is to identify some imaging parameters in osteogenesis imperfecta to assist the dentist in the diagnosis, planning, and orthodontic treatment of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) using 3D cone beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and the Double Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) technique. (2) Methods: 14 patients (9 males and 5 females; aged mean ± SD 15 ± 1.5) with a clinical-radiological diagnosis of OI were analyzed and divided into mild and moderate to severe forms. The patients’ samples were compared with a control group of 14 patients (8 males and 6 females; aged mean ± SD 15 ± 1.7), free from osteoporotic pathologies. (3) Results: The statistical analysis allowed us to collect four datasets: in the first dataset (C1 sick population vs. C1 healthy population), the t-test showed a p-value < 0.0001; in the second dataset (C2 sick population vs. C2 healthy population), the t-test showed a p-value < 0.0001; in the third dataset (parameter X of the sick population vs. parameter X of the healthy population), the t-test showed a p-value < 0.0001; in the fourth dataset the bone mineralometry (BMD) value detected by the DEXA technique compared to the C2 value of the OI affected population only) the Welch–Satterthwaite test showed a p-value < 0.0001. (4) Conclusions: The research has produced specific imaging parameters that assist the dentist in making diagnostic decisions in OI patients. This study shows that patients with OI have a characteristic chin-bearing symphysis, thinned, and narrowed towards the center, configuring it with a constant “hourglass” appearance, not reported so far in the literature by any author.
Consistent practice of physical activity has well known positive effects on general health; however, time for exercise remains one major barrier for many. An acute bout of high intensity interval resistance training (HIIRT) increases acute resting energy expenditure (REE) and decreases respiratory ratio (RR), suggesting its potential role on weight loss and increased fatty acid oxidation. The aim of this study was to test the long-term effect of HIIRT on body composition, lipid profile and muscle strength using a randomized parallel trial. Twenty healthy young adults (22.15 ± 1.95 years) were randomized to perform either a HIIRT (N = 11) protocol, consisting of three sets of 6 repetitions at 6 repetition maximum (RM) and then 20 seconds of rest between repetitions until exhaustion repeated for 3 times with 2′30″ rest between sets or a traditional training (TRT, N = 9) protocol of 3 sets of 15 reps with 75 sec of rest between sets. Body composition, resting energy metabolism, aerobic capacity, muscle strength and blood measurements were taken before and after 8 weeks of training. Both protocols enhanced muscle strength, but only HIIRT improved endurance strength performance (+22.07%, p < 0.05) and lean body mass (+2.82%, p < 0.05). REE and RR were unaltered as lipid profile. HIIRT represents a valid training method to improve muscle strength and mass, but its role on body weight control was not confirmed.
Little is known regarding the association between physical fitness and bone health in older Korean men. This study investigated the relationship between estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and bone mineral density (BMD). This cross-sectional study included 2715 Korean men aged 50 years and older selected from those who participated in the 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination and Survey. eCRF was obtained using a sex-specific algorithm developed on the basis of age, body mass index, resting heart rate, and physical activity and classified into low, middle, and high categories. Femoral neck BMD was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for osteopenia, osteoporosis, and low BMD were calculated for eCRF categories in models fully adjusted for age, waist circumference, education, income, smoking, heavy alcohol intake, serum vitamin D, serum parathyroid hormone, and dietary intake of energy, protein, calcium, and vitamins A and C. Overall, eCRF levels were positively associated with BMD and negatively with prevalence of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and low BMD. Logistic regression showed inverse trends in the risks of osteopenia (high vs. low: OR = 0.692; 95% CI, 0.328–0.517; p = 0.049) and low BMD (high vs. low: OR = 0.669; 95% CI, 0.497–0.966; p = 0.029) by eCRF category in models fully adjusted for all the measured covariates. The current findings suggest that maintaining high eCRF via regular physical activity may contribute to attenuation of age-related loss of BMD and decreased risk for low BMD in older Korean men.
ObjectiveNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and sarcopenia, which are common in elderly men, are known as risk factors of fracture. However, few studies have examined the association with fracture in these patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between NAFLD with or without sarcopenia and 10-year fracture probability in Korean men aged ≥50 years.Materials and MethodsData of 2,525 individuals from the 2010–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. NAFLD was defined using the fatty liver index (FLI) and comprehensive NAFLD score (CNS), and liver fibrosis using the fibrosis 4 calculator. Sarcopenia was defined as the lowest quintile for sex-specific sarcopenia index cutoff; values. The Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) tool was used to predict the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic and hip fractures.ResultsCompared to the no NAFLD group, the 10-year major osteoporotic fracture probability was significantly associated with the FLI-defined (β = 0.16, P = 0.002) and CNS-defined (β = 0.20, P < 0.001) NAFLD groups with liver fibrosis. Similarly, the 10-year hip fracture probability was significantly associated with the FLI- and CNS-defined NAFLD with liver fibrosis groups compared to the group without NAFLD (FLI-defined group, β = 0.04, P = 0.046; CNS-defined group, β = 0.05, P = 0.048). Furthermore, in the group with sarcopenia, the 10-year major osteoporotic fracture probability was significantly associated with the FLI- and CNS-defined NAFLD with liver fibrosis groups compared to the group without NAFLD (FLI-defined group, β = 0.29, P = 0.003; CNS-defined group, β = 0.38, P < 0.001).ConclusionsNAFLD with liver fibrosis is significantly associated with a higher 10-year major osteoporotic and hip fracture probability in Korean men aged ≥50 years, and this positive association was more profound in patients with sarcopenia. Therefore, screening middle-aged to elderly men who have NAFLD combined with liver fibrosis and sarcopenia may help prevent fractures.
BackgroundPrimary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common endocrine disorders impacting on skeletal health, whose concomitant occurrence is becoming more frequent.Patients and MethodsWe searched the PubMed database from the National Library of Medicine about the relationship between T2DM and its treatment and bone manifestations of PHPT. Thereafter, we retrospectively evaluated a consecutive series of 472 PHPT patients. Among them 55 were also affected by T2DM. At the diagnosis of PHPT we compared bone turnover markers and bone densitometry between 55 patients with and 417 without T2DM and in the former group according to antidiabetic treatment.ResultsFew data are available about T2DM and PHPT bone involvement, studies about T2DM treatments and PHPT bone manifestations are lacking. Among patients with PHPT of our series, those with T2DM were older, had a lower prevalence of osteitis fibrosa cystica, higher lumbar and femoral T-scores than the remaining patients. No difference was disclosed among the diabetic patients according to ongoing antidiabetic treatment, even though modern treatments were under-represented.ConclusionsNo clinical study specifically evaluated the impact of T2DM on bone involvement in PHPT. In our experience, diabetic patients resulted more frequently “mild asymptomatic” than non-diabetic patients and showed a lower prevalence of radiological PHPT bone manifestations. The treatment of T2DM does not seem to affect the biochemical or clinical features of PHPT in our series. Further studies are needed to fully disclose the influence of T2DM and antidiabetic treatment on bone health in patients with PHPT.
The present study aimed to examine the participation and contribution of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) genes for the risk of endothelial dysfunction (ED)-associated osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal women of Punjab, India. Women with ED were categorized into women with osteoporosis (n = 346) and women without osteoporosis (n = 330). They were examined for selected SNPs within eNOS, ACE and VEGFA genes. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive association of ED with bone mineral densities (BMDs) at femoral neck (r2 = 0.78, p < 0.001) and lumbar spine (r2 = 0.24, p = 0.001) after Bonferroni correction. Three susceptibility haplotypes were exposed within eNOS (CTAAAT), ACE (ACDG) and VEGFA (GATA) genes. Bearers of CTAAAT (OR 2.43, p = 0.007), ACDG (OR 2.50, p = 0.002) and GATA (OR 2.10, p = 0.009) had substantial impact for osteoporosis after correcting the effects with traditional risk factors (TRD).With uncertainty measure (R2h) and Akaike information criterion (AIC), best fit models showed that CTAAAT manifested in multiplicative mode (β ± SE: 2.19 ± 0.86, p < 0.001), whereas ACDG (β ± SE: 1.73 ± 0.54, p = 0.001) and GATA (β ± SE: 3.07 ± 0.81, p < 0.001) expressed in dominant modes. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve using weighted risk scores (effect estimates) showed substantial strength for model comprising TRD + GATA (AUC = 0.8, p < 0.001) whereas, model comprising TRD + GATA + CTAAAT exhibited excellent ability to predict osteoporosis (AUC = 0.824, p < 0.001)
A gender difference in youth sports and physical activity participation is well documented. However, research is limited to understand potential gender difference in the long-term effects of youth sports participation. The study aim was to compare the likelihood of meeting the aerobic Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) in early adulthood by youth sports participation patterns among females and males. The study sample included 582 Iowa Bone Development Study participants (Iowa, USA). Participation in organized sports was assessed using a physical activity questionnaire 19 times on average between age 6 and 17 years. Accelerometer and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessments were conducted at an average age of 23 years. Group-based trajectory analysis was conducted to identify youth sports participation trajectory patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between youth sports participation patterns and meeting the PAG in adulthood. We identified three youth sports participation patterns: “continuous participation,” “drop-out,” and “no participation.” Females in the continuous participation group were more likely to meet the aerobic PAG at age 23 years, compared to females in the no-participation group (OR = 2.63; 95% CI = 1.05, 6.55) or the drop-out group (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.38, 4.69). However, among males, youth sports participation patterns were not significantly associated with meeting the aerobic PAG at age 23 years. In conclusion, this study suggests that youth sports participation could be more important among females than males for predicting physical activity in early adulthood.
Despite convincing experimental evidence, epidemiological studies on the effects of serum uric acid (SUA) on bone health are still conflicting since factors influencing SUA bioavailability have not been adequately considered. To shed some light on this issue, we investigated the impact of adiposity and menopause status on the relationship between SUA and bone health. We examined SUA in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) at different skeletal sites and with markers of bone metabolism in 124 pre-menopausal and 234 post-menopausal women and assessed whether adiposity, evaluated by anthropometry and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), might have a discriminant role. After conservative adjustment (covariates: age, hormones treatment, smoking and time since menopause), SUA showed a significant and positive association with total hip BMD (β = 0.220, p < 0.01) among postmenopausal women, maintained also after adjustment for legs adiposity. Notably, stratification for waist circumference quartiles revealed that the correlation between SUA and total hip BMD was significant (r = 0.444, p = 0.001) in the highest quartile (91–100 cm). Our results suggest that SUA might be beneficial for bone health in postmenopausal women being characterized by a more android fat distribution, ascribing to SUA a discriminant role during menopause transition, potentially relevant also for men.
Increased consumption of high fat/sucrose (HF/S) diets has contributed to rising rates of obesity and its co-morbidities globally, while also negatively impacting male reproductive health. Our objective was to examine whether adding a methyl donor cocktail to paternal HF/S diet (HF/S+M) improves health status in fathers and offspring. From 3–12 weeks of age, male Sprague Dawley rats consumed a HF/S or HF/S+M diet. Offspring were followed until 16 weeks of age. Body composition, metabolic markers, gut microbiota, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and microRNA expression were measured in fathers and offspring. Compared to HF/S, paternal HF/S+M diet reduced fat mass in offspring (p < 0.005). HF/S+M fathers consumed 16% fewer kcal/day, which persisted in HF/S+M female offspring and was explained in part by changes in serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) levels. Compared to HF/S, HF/S+M fathers had a 33% improvement in days until conception and 300% fewer stillbirths. In fathers, adipose tissue DNMT3a and hepatic miR-34a expression were reduced with HF/S+M. Adult male offspring showed upregulated miR-24, -33, -122a and -143 expression while females exhibited downregulated miR-33 expression. Fathers and offspring presented differences in gut microbial signatures. Supplementing a paternal HF/S diet with methyl-donors improved fertility, physiological outcomes, epigenetic and gut microbial signatures intergenerationally.
The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the hip structural analysis (HSA) levels of patients with those of a hip fracture group. All patients with an initial hip fracture who were older than or equal to 65 years old and admitted to our hospital between March 2018 and January 2019 were eligible for this study. During the study period, 134 hip fracture patients aged 65 years and older were admitted to the study institution, and a total of 51 hip fracture patients were ultimately assigned to the patient group. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), skeletal muscle index (SMI), and vitamin D were matched in the two groups (hip fracture (HF) group vs. non-hip fracture group) using propensity score matching (PSM) without any statistical differences. Following propensity score matching, 51 patients in the HF group and 51 patients in the non-HF group were included in the study, respectively. Hip axis length (p = 0.031), neck-shaft angle (p = 0.043), width of intertrochanter (p = 0.005), and femur shaft (p = 0.01) were found to be significantly higher in the HF group (107.31 (mean) ± 9.55 (standard deviation, SD), 131.11 ± 5.29, 5.57 ± 0.58, and 3.05 ± 0.23, respectively) than in the non-HF group (102.07 ± 14.15, 128.85 ± 5.81, 5.29 ± 0.38, and 2.92 ± 0.23, respectively). However, cross-sectional area (CSA) of femur neck (p = 0.005) and femur shaft (p = 0.01) as well as cortical thickness (CT) of femur neck (p = 0.031) and femur shaft (p = 0.031) were found to be significantly lower in the HF group (1.93 ± 0.44, 3.18 ± 0.83, 0.11 ± 0.02, and 0.38 ± 0.09, respectively) than in the non-HF group (2.12 ± 0.46, 3.57 ± 0.78, 0.13 ± 0.03, and 0.47 ± 0.11, respectively). The HSA showed excellent sensitivity (82.4% to 90.2%). HSA is an important factor in predicting the occurrence of hip fracture. Therefore, not only should bone mineral density (BMD) be considered clinically, but it is also important to look closely at HSA for risk of hip fracture.
(1) Background: Studies examining osteoporosis trends among US adults by different socioeconomic status (SES) are limited. The prevalence of self-reported osteoporosis in the US is rarely reported. (2) Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2007–2008 and 2013–2014 cycles were analyzed. Age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported and that of measured osteoporosis were calculated overall and by sex, race/ethnicity, education attainment, and SES. (3) Results: The prevalence of self-reported osteoporosis was higher than that of measured osteoporosis in all three survey cycles for women, and in 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 for men. Participants with high school/GED or higher educational attainment had an increased prevalence of measured osteoporosis during the study period. Among all SES groups, participants with low family income (PIR < 1.3) had the highest prevalence of measured osteoporosis, and the prevalence increased from 49.3 per 1000 population to 71.8 per 1000 population during the study period. (4) Conclusions: The prevalence of self-reported osteoporosis was higher than that of measured osteoporosis in US adults between 2007 and 2014. The age-adjusted prevalence of measured osteoporosis increased in participants with the educational attainment of high school/GED or above, and individuals with low family income.
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