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Hamamatsu C2400
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This model was found at
70 locations
The model is used in
15 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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69 related research fields
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About the Hamamatsu C2400

The model Hamamatsu C2400 was found in 70 unique locations in 15 countries where it was mentioned from 1994 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Molecular Biology, General Neuroscience, Genetics, Cell Biology, and General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. The model is also used in General Medicine, Neurology, Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, Cancer Research, Physiology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Neurology (clinical), Developmental Biology, General Immunology and Microbiology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Medicine, Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine, Parasitology, Plant Science, Biophysics, Transplantation, Biotechnology, Drug Discovery, Pharmacology (medical), Microbiology (medical), Infectious Diseases, General Physics and Astronomy, and Ecology.
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Research that uses the Hamamatsu C2400

Glauber R. de S. Araújo, Carolina de L. Alcantara, Noêmia Rodrigues, Wanderley de Souza, Bruno Pontes, Susana Frases, Frontiers in Microbiology, 12, 2021
Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. It is surrounded by three concentric structures that separate the cell from the extracellular space: the plasma membrane, the cell wall and the polysaccharide (PS) capsule. Although several studies have revealed the chemical composition of these structures, little is known about their ultrastructural organization and remodeling during C. neoformans budding events. Here, by combining the latest and most accurate light and electron microscopy techniques, we describe the morphological remodeling that occurs among the capsule, cell wall and plasma membrane during budding in C. neoformans. Our results show that the cell wall deforms to generate a specialized region at one of the cell’s poles. This region subsequently begins to break into layers that are slightly separated from each other and with thick tips. We also observe a reorganization of the capsular PS around the specialized regions. While daughter cells present their PS fibers aligned in the direction of budding, mother cells show a similar pattern but in the opposite direction. Also, daughter cells form multilamellar membrane structures covering the continuous opening between both cells. Together, our findings provide compelling ultrastructural evidence for C. neoformans surface remodeling during budding, which may have important implications for future studies exploring these remodeled specialized regions as drug-targets against cryptococcosis.
Juliana Soares, Glauber R. de S. Araujo, Cintia Santana, Diana Matias, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Marcos Farina, Susana Frases, Nathan B. Viana, Luciana Romão, H. Moysés Nussenzveig, Bruno Pontes, Cells, 9, 1323 (6), 2020
Neural precursor cells differentiate into several cell types that display distinct functions. However, little is known about how cell surface mechanics vary during the differentiation process. Here, by precisely measuring membrane tension and bending modulus, we map their variations and correlate them with changes in neural precursor cell morphology along their distinct differentiation fates. Both cells maintained in culture as neural precursors as well as those plated in neurobasal medium reveal a decrease in membrane tension over the first hours of culture followed by stabilization, with no change in bending modulus. During astrocyte differentiation, membrane tension initially decreases and then increases after 72 h, accompanied by consolidation of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and striking actin reorganization, while bending modulus increases following observed alterations. For oligodendrocytes, the changes in membrane tension are less abrupt over the first hours, but their values subsequently decrease, correlating with a shift from oligodendrocyte marker O4 to myelin basic protein expressions and a remarkable actin reorganization, while bending modulus remains constant. Oligodendrocytes at later differentiation stages show membrane vesicles with similar membrane tension but higher bending modulus as compared to the cell surface. Altogether, our results display an entire spectrum of how membrane elastic properties are varying, thus contributing to a better understanding of neural differentiation from a mechanobiological perspective.
Giulia Mancini, Nicoletta Loberto, Debora Olioso, Maria Cristina Dechecchi, Giulio Cabrini, Laura Mauri, Rosaria Bassi, Domitilla Schiumarini, Elena Chiricozzi, Giuseppe Lippi, Emanuela Pesce, Sandro Sonnino, Nicoletta Pedemonte, Anna Tamanini, Massimo Aureli, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21, 4486 (12), 2020
Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein is expressed at the apical plasma membrane (PM) of different epithelial cells. The most common mutation responsible for the onset of cystic fibrosis (CF), F508del, inhibits the biosynthesis and transport of the protein at PM, and also presents gating and stability defects of the membrane anion channel upon its rescue by the use of correctors and potentiators. This prompted a multiple drug strategy for F508delCFTR aimed simultaneously at its rescue, functional potentiation and PM stabilization. Since ganglioside GM1 is involved in the functional stabilization of transmembrane proteins, we investigated its role as an adjuvant to increase the effectiveness of CFTR modulators. According to our results, we found that GM1 resides in the same PM microenvironment as CFTR. In CF cells, the expression of the mutated channel is accompanied by a decrease in the PM GM1 content. Interestingly, by the exogenous administration of GM1, it becomes a component of the PM, reducing the destabilizing effect of the potentiator VX-770 on rescued CFTR protein expression/function and improving its stabilization. This evidence could represent a starting point for developing innovative therapeutic strategies based on the co-administration of GM1, correctors and potentiators, with the aim of improving F508del CFTR function.
Nobuhiko Kato, Akihiko Ishijima, Takehiko Inaba, Fumimasa Nomura, Shuichi Takeda, Kingo Takiguchi, Membranes, 5, 22-47 (1), 2015
The mechanical properties of cell-sized giant unilamellar liposomes were studied by manipulating polystyrene beads encapsulated within the liposomes using double-beam laser tweezers. Mechanical forces were applied to the liposomes from within by moving the beads away from each other, which caused the liposomes to elongate. Subsequently, a tubular membrane projection was generated in the tip at either end of the liposome, or the bead moved out from the laser trap. The force required for liposome transformation reached maximum strength just before formation of the projection or the moving out of the bead. By employing this manipulation system, we investigated the effects of membrane lipid compositions and environment solutions on the mechanical properties. With increasing content of acidic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid, a larger strength of force was required for the liposome transformation. Liposomes prepared with a synthetic dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, which has uniform hydrocarbon chains, were transformed easily compared with liposomes prepared using natural phosphatidylcholine. Surprisingly, bovine serum albumin or fetuin (soluble proteins that do not bind to membranes) decreased liposomal membrane rigidity, whereas the same concentration of sucrose showed no particular effect. These results show that the mechanical properties of liposomes depend on their lipid composition and environment.
Sarah L. Morris, Ming-Ying Tsai, Sarah Aloe, Karin Bechberger, Svenja König, Gerardo Morfini, Scott T. Brady, Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 13, 2021
Tau protein is subject to phosphorylation by multiple kinases at more than 80 different sites. Some of these sites are associated with tau pathology and neurodegeneration, but other sites are modified in normal tau as well as in pathological tau. Although phosphorylation of tau at residues in the microtubule-binding repeats is thought to reduce tau association with microtubules, the functional consequences of other sites are poorly understood. The AT8 antibody recognizes a complex phosphoepitope site on tau that is detectable in a healthy brain but significantly increased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Previous studies showed that phosphorylation of tau at the AT8 site leads to exposure of an N-terminal sequence that promotes activation of a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)/glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3) signaling pathway, which inhibits kinesin-1-based anterograde fast axonal transport (FAT). This finding suggests that phosphorylation may control tau conformation and function. However, the AT8 includes three distinct phosphorylated amino acids that may be differentially phosphorylated in normal and disease conditions. To evaluate the effects of specific phosphorylation sites in the AT8 epitope, recombinant, pseudophosphorylated tau proteins were perfused into the isolated squid axoplasm preparation to determine their effects on axonal signaling pathways and FAT. Results from these studies suggest a mechanism where specific phosphorylation events differentially impact tau conformation, promoting activation of independent signaling pathways that differentially affect FAT. Implications of findings here to our understanding of tau function in health and disease conditions are discussed.
Only abstracts that are published under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ are shown on this page.

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