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camera, ultrascan digital camera, camera, charge-coupled device camera, camera
This model was found at
212 locations
The model is used in
29 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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89 related research fields
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About the Gatan Ultrascan 1000

The model Gatan Ultrascan 1000 was found in 212 unique locations in 29 countries where it was mentioned from 2006 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Molecular Biology, General Materials Science, General Chemistry, General Physics and Astronomy, and General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology. The model is also used in General Medicine, Genetics, Organic Chemistry, Biotechnology, Bioengineering, Cell Biology, Biochemistry, Structural Biology, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics, Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Science, General Energy, Spectroscopy, General Engineering, Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Virology, Plant Science, Drug Discovery, Catalysis, Molecular Medicine, Polymers and Plastics, and Genetics (clinical).
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Research that uses the Gatan Ultrascan 1000

Obiora Azie, Zachary F. Greenberg, Christopher D. Batich, Jon P. Dobson, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20, 3190 (13), 2019
Conjugation of latent growth factors to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is potentially useful for magnetically triggered release of bioactive macromolecules. Thus, the goal of this work was to trigger the release of active Transforming Growth-Factor Beta (TGF-β) via magnetic hyperthermia by binding SPIONs to the latent form of TGF-β, since heat has been shown to induce release of TGF-β from the latent complex. Commercially available SPIONS with high specific absorption rates (SAR) were hydrolyzed in 70% ethanol to create surface carboxylic acid conjugation sites for carbodiimide chemistry. Fourier-Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis verified the conversion of maleic anhydride to maleic acid. 1-Ethyl-2-(3-dimethyulaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (Sulfo-NHS) were used to bind to the open conjugation sites of the SPION in order to graft latent TGF-β onto the particles. The resulting conjugated particles were imaged with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the complexed particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the thermally triggered release of active TGF-β from the latent complex, demonstrating that conjugation did not interfere with release. Results showed that latent TGF-β was successfully conjugated to the iron oxide nanoparticles, and magnetically triggered release of active TGF-β was achieved.
Karma R. Pace, Reetika Dutt, Deni S. Galileo, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20, 3982 (16), 2019
Immunoglobulin superfamily protein L1CAM (L1, CD171) normally facilitates neuronal migration, differentiation, and axon guidance during development. Many types of cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM), also abnormally express L1, and this has been associated with poor prognosis due to increased cell proliferation, invasiveness, or metastasis. We showed previously that the soluble L1 ectodomain, which is proteolyzed from the transmembrane form, can stimulate proliferation and motility of GBM cells in vitro by acting through integrins and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). Minute L1-decorated exosomal vesicles also are released by GBM cells and potentially could stimulate cell motility, proliferation, and invasiveness, but this needed to be demonstrated. In the present study, we aimed to determine if minute L1-decorated extracellular vesicles (exosomes) were capable of stimulating GBM cell motility, proliferation, and invasiveness. L1-decorated exosomes were isolated from the conditioned media of the human T98G GBM cell line and were evaluated for their effects on the behavior of glioma cell lines and primary tumor cells. L1-decorated exosomes significantly increased cell velocity in the three human glioma cells tested (T98G/shL1, U-118 MG, and primary GBM cells) in a highly quantitative SuperScratch assay compared to L1-reduced exosomes from L1-attenuated T98G/shL1 cells. They also caused a marked increase in cell proliferation as determined by DNA cell cycle analysis and cell counting. In addition, L1-decorated exosomes facilitated initial GBM cell invasion when mixed with non-invasive T98G/shL1 cells in our chick embryo brain tumor model, whereas mixing with L1-reduced exosomes did not. Chemical inhibitors against focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) decreased L1-mediated motility and proliferation to varying degrees. These novel data show that L1-decoratred exosomes stimulate motility, proliferation and invasion to influence GBM cell behavior, which adds to the complexity of how L1 stimulates cancer cells through not only soluble ectodomain but also through exosomes.
Manuela Costanzo, Elisabetta Esposito, Maddalena Sguizzato, Maria Assunta Lacavalla, Markus Drechsler, Giuseppe Valacchi, Carlo Zancanaro, Manuela Malatesta, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22, 5341 (10), 2021
In this pilot study, ethosomes and transethosomes were investigated as potential delivery systems for cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), whose deficiency has been correlated to many disorders such as dermatological diseases, systemic infections, cancer and sarcopenia. A formulative study on the influence of pharmaceutically acceptable ionic and non-ionic surfactants allowed the preparation of different transethosomes. In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in different cell types representative of epithelial, connective and muscle tissue. Then, the selected nanocarriers were further investigated at light and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate their uptake and intracellular fate. Both ethosomes and transethosomes proven to have physicochemical properties optimal for transdermal penetration and efficient vitamin D3 loading; moreover, nanocarriers were easily internalized by all cell types, although they followed distinct intracellular fates: ethosomes persisted for long times inside the cytoplasm, without inducing subcellular alteration, while transethosomes underwent rapid degradation giving rise to an intracellular accumulation of lipids. These basic results provide a solid scientific background to in vivo investigations aimed at exploring the efficacy of vitamin D3 transdermal administration in different experimental and pathological conditions.
Natalia Voskoboynikova, Maria Karlova, Rainer Kurre, Armen Y. Mulkidjanian, Konstantin V. Shaitan, Olga S. Sokolova, Heinz-Jürgen Steinhoff, Jürgen J. Heinisch, Journal of Fungi, 7, 118 (2), 2021
The cell wall sensor Wsc1 belongs to a small family of transmembrane proteins, which are crucial to sustain cell integrity in yeast and other fungi. Wsc1 acts as a mechanosensor of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signal transduction pathway which responds to external stresses. Here we report on the purification of Wsc1 by its trapping in water-soluble polymer-stabilized lipid nanoparticles, obtained with an amphipathic styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymer. The latter was employed to transfer tagged sensors from their native yeast membranes into SMA/lipid particles (SMALPs), which allows their purification in a functional state, i.e., avoiding denaturation. The SMALPs composition was characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, followed by two-dimensional image acquisition from single particle transmission electron microscopy to build a three-dimensional model of the sensor. The latter confirms that Wsc1 consists of a large extracellular domain connected to a smaller intracellular part by a single transmembrane domain, which is embedded within the hydrophobic moiety of the lipid bilayer. The successful extraction of a sensor from the yeast plasma membrane by a detergent-free procedure into a native-like membrane environment provides new prospects for in vitro structural and functional studies of yeast plasma proteins which are likely to be applicable to other fungi, including plant and human pathogens.
Sondes Bauer, Adriana Rodrigues, Lukáš Horák, Xiaowei Jin, Reinhard Schneider, Tilo Baumbach, Václav Holý, Materials, 13, 61 (1), 2019
Structural quality of LuFeO 3 epitaxial layers grown by pulsed-laser deposition on sapphire substrates with and without platinum Pt interlayers has been investigated by in situ high-resolution X-ray diffraction (reciprocal-space mapping). The parameters of the structure such as size and misorientation of mosaic blocks have been determined as functions of the thickness of LuFeO 3 during growth and for different thicknesses of platinum interlayers up to 40 nm. By means of fitting of the time-resolved X-ray reflectivity curves and by in situ X-ray diffraction measurement, we demonstrate that the LuFeO 3 growth rate as well as the out-of-plane lattice parameter are almost independent from Pt interlayer thickness, while the in-plane LuFeO 3 lattice parameter decreases. We reveal that, despite the different morphologies of the Pt interlayers with different thickness, LuFeO 3 was growing as a continuous mosaic layer and the misorientation of the mosaic blocks decreases with increasing Pt thickness. The X-ray diffraction results combined with ex situ scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the Pt interlayer significantly improves the structure of LuFeO 3 by reducing the misfit of the LuFeO 3 lattice with respect to the material underneath.
Asmaa H. Hammadi, Ahmed M. Jasim, Firas H. Abdulrazzak, Abdulkareem M. A. Al-Sammarraie, Yacine Cherifi, Rabah Boukherroub, Falah H. Hussein, Materials, 13, 2342 (10), 2020
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized by the flame fragment deposition (FFD) technique using Iraqi liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a source of carbon in a hand-made reactor at a low temperature (160 °C) without using a catalyst. Purification of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is carried out using a two-step process consisting of sonication in 30 wt.% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution at room temperature to remove amorphous impurities adhering to the walls of the CNTs and carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), followed by sonication in an acetone bath to remove the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formed during the LPG gas burning. Comprehensive characterizations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were conducted to verify the efficiency of the purification process. The results clearly demonstrated that this process is promising for the purification of the synthesized CNTs.
Dongqing Cheng, Liang Sun, Songyan Zou, Jiang Chen, Haiyan Mao, Yanjun Zhang, Ningbo Liao, Ronghua Zhang, Molecules, 24, 1835 (9), 2019
Houttuynia cordata is an herbal plant rich in polysaccharides and with several pharmacological activities. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of foodborne viral gastroenteritis throughout the world. In this study, H. cordata polysaccharide (HP), with a molecular weight of ~43 kDa, was purified from H. cordata water extract (HWE). The polysaccharide HP was composed predominantly of galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, and xylose in a molar ratio of 1.56:1.49:1.26:1.11. Methylation and NMR analyses revealed that HP was a pectin-like acidic polysaccharide mainly consisting of α-1,4-linked GalpA, β-1,4-linked Galp, β-1,4-linked Glcp, and β-1,4-linked Xylp residues. To evaluate the antiviral activity of H. cordata extracts, we compared the anti-norovirus potential of HP with HWE and ethanol extract (HEE) from H. cordata by plaque assay (plaque forming units (PFU)/mL) for murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a surrogate of HuNoVs. Viruses at high (8.09 log10 PFU/mL) or low (4.38 log10 PFU/mL) counts were mixed with 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL of HP, HWE or HEE and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. H. cordata polysaccharide (HP) was more effective than HEE in reducing MNV-1 plaque formation, but less effective than HWE. When MNV-1 was treated with 500 μg/mL HP, the infectivity of MNV-1 decreased to an undetectable level. The selectivity indexes of each sample were 1.95 for HEE, 5.74 for HP, and 16.14 for HWE. The results of decimal reduction time and transmission electron microscopic revealed that HP has anti-viral effects by deforming and inflating virus particles, thereby inhibiting the penetration of viruses in target cells. These findings suggest that HP might have potential as an antiviral agent in the treatment of viral diseases.
Hui Wei, Wei Wang, Peter N. Ciesielski, Bryon S. Donohoe, Min Zhang, Michael E. Himmel, Xiaowen Chen, Melvin P. Tucker, Molecules, 25, 1427 (6), 2020
Ferrous ion co-catalyst enhancement of dilute-acid (DA) pretreatment of biomass is a promising technology for increasing the release of sugars from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, due to the reductive status of ferrous ion and its susceptibility to oxidation with exposure to atmosphere, its effective application presumably requires anaerobic aqueous conditions created by nitrogen gas-purging, which adds extra costs. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of oxidative iron ion, (i.e., ferric ion) as a co-catalyst in DA pretreatment of biomass, using an anaerobic chamber to strictly control exposure to oxygen during setup and post-pretreatment analyses. Remarkably, the ferric ions were found to be as efficient as ferrous ions in enhancing sugar release during DA pretreatment of biomass, which may be attributed to the observation that a major portion of the initial ferric ions were converted to ferrous during pretreatment. Furthermore, the detection of hydrogen peroxide in the liquors after DA/Fe ion pretreatment suggests that Fenton reaction chemistry was likely involved in DA/Fe ion pretreatments of biomass, contributing to the observed ferric and ferrous interchanges during pretreatment. These results help define the extent and specification requirements for applying iron ions as co-catalysts in DA pretreatments of biomass.
Supandeep Singh Hallan, Maddalena Sguizzato, Gabriella Pavoni, Anna Baldisserotto, Markus Drechsler, Paolo Mariani, Elisabetta Esposito, Rita Cortesi, Molecules, 25, 1449 (6), 2020
Ellagic acid (EA) is a potent antioxidant substance of natural origin characterized by poor biopharmaceutical properties and low solubility in water that limit its use. The aim of the present study was to develop lipid-based nanoparticle formulations able to encapsulate EA for dermal delivery. The EA-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using two different lipid compositions, namely tristearin/tricaprylin (NLC-EA1) and tristearin/labrasol (NLC-EA2). The influence of formulations on size, entrapment efficiency, and stability of EA-loaded nanoparticles was investigated. Cryo-TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses showed that no morphological differences are evident among all the types of loaded and unloaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The macroscopic aspect of both NLC-EA1 and NLC-EA2 did not change with time. No difference in size was appreciable between empty and drug-containing NLC, thus the nanoparticle diameter was not affected by the presence of EA and in general no variations of the diameters occurred during this time. The entrapment efficiency of both EA-loaded nanoparticles was almost quantitative. In addition, NLC-EA1 maintained EA stability for almost two months, while NLC-EA2 up to 40 days. FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay showed an antioxidant activity around 60% for both the loaded NLC, as compared to the solution. Although both types of NLC are characterized by some toxicity on HaCaT cells, NLC-EA1 are less cytotoxic than NLC-EA2. Taken together these results demonstrated that the inclusion of EA within NLC could improve the water solubility, allowing for a reduction of the dosage. Moreover, both types of NLC-EA maintained a high antioxidant effect and low toxicity.
Yulia Trushkina, Cheuk-Wai Tai, German Salazar-Alvarez, Nanomaterials, 9, 1004 (7), 2019
Maghemite nanoparticles with high surface area were obtained from the dehydroxylation of lepidocrocite prismatic nanoparticles. The synthesis pathway from the precursor to the porous maghemite nanoparticles is inexpensive, simple and gives high surface area values for both lepidocrocite and maghemite. The obtained maghemite nanoparticles contained intraparticle and interparticle pores with a surface area ca. 30 × 103 m2/mol, with pore volumes in the order of 70 cm3/mol. Both the surface area and pore volume depended on the heating rate and annealing temperature, with the highest value near the transformation temperature (180–250 °C). Following the transformation, in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) allowed us to observe the temporal decoupling of the decomposition of lepidocrocite and the growth of maghemite. The combination of high-angle annular dark-field imaging using scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and surface adsorption isotherms is a powerful approach for the characterization of nanomaterials with high surface area and porosity.
Hilario Martines-Arano, Mónica Araceli Vidales-Hurtado, Samara Palacios-Barreto, Martín Trejo-Valdez, Blanca Estela García-Pérez, Carlos Torres-Torres, Processes, 8, 1377 (11), 2020
A laser ablation process assisted by the feedback of a sensor with chaotic electronic modulation is reported. A synchronous bistable logic circuit was analyzed for switching optical signals in a laser-processing technique. The output of a T-type flip-flop configuration was employed in the photodamage of NiO films. Multiphotonic effects involved in the ablation threshold were evaluated by a vectorial two-wave mixing method. A photoinduced thermal phenomenon was identified as the main physical mechanism responsible for the nonlinearity of index under nanosecond irradiation at 532 nm wavelength. Comparative experiments for destroying highly transparent human cells were carried out. Potential applications for developing hierarchical functions yielding laser-induced controlled explosions with immediate applications for biomedical photothermal processes can be contemplated.
Hilario Martines-Arano, Blanca Estela García-Pérez, Mónica Araceli Vidales-Hurtado, Martín Trejo-Valdez, Luis Héctor Hernández-Gómez, Carlos Torres-Torres, Sensors, 19, 4728 (21), 2019
The evolution of the optical absorptive effects exhibited by plasmonic nanoparticles was systematically analyzed by electronic signals modulated by a Rössler attractor system. A sol-gel approach was employed for the preparation of the studied Au nanoparticles embedded in a TiO2 thin solid film. The inclusion of the nanoparticles in an inhomogeneous biological sample integrated by human cells deposited in an ITO glass substrate was evaluated with a high level of sensitivity using an opto-electronic chaotic circuit. The optical response of the nanoparticles was determined using nanosecond laser pulses in order to guarantee the sensing performance of the system. It was shown that high-intensity irradiances at a wavelength of 532 nm could promote a change in the absorption band of the localized surface plasmon resonance associated with an increase in the nanoparticle density of the film. Moreover, it was revealed that interferometrically-controlled energy transfer mechanisms can be useful for thermo-plasmonic functions and sharp selective optical damage induced by the vectorial nature of light. Immediate applications of two-wave mixing techniques, together with chaotic effects, can be contemplated in the development of nanostructured sensors and laser-induced controlled explosions, with potential applications for biomedical photo-thermal processes.
Bridget Lins-Austin, Saajan Patel, Mario Mietzsch, Dewey Brooke, Antonette Bennett, Balasubramanian Venkatakrishnan, Kim Van Vliet, Adam N. Smith, Joanna R. Long, Robert McKenna, Mark Potter, Barry Byrne, Sanford L. Boye, Brian Bothner, Regine Heilbronn, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Viruses, 12, 668 (6), 2020
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are small, non-pathogenic ssDNA viruses being used as therapeutic gene delivery vectors for the treatment of a variety of monogenic diseases. An obstacle to successful gene delivery is inefficient capsid trafficking through the endo/lysosomal pathway. This study aimed to characterize the AAV capsid stability and dynamics associated with this process for a select number of AAV serotypes, AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV8, at pHs representative of the early and late endosome, and the lysosome (6.0, 5.5, and 4.0, respectively). All AAV serotypes displayed thermal melt temperatures that varied with pH. The stability of AAV1, AAV2, and AAV8 increased in response to acidic conditions and then decreased at pH 4.0. In contrast, AAV5 demonstrated a consistent decrease in thermostability in response to acidification. Negative-stain EM visualization of liposomes in the presence of capsids at pH 5.5 or when heat shocked showed induced remodeling consistent with the externalization of the PLA2 domain of VP1u. These observations provide clues to the AAV capsid dynamics that facilitate successful infection. Finally, transduction assays revealed a pH and temperature dependence with low acidity and temperatures > 4 °C as detrimental factors.
Yana A. Danilova, Viktoriia V. Belousova, Andrey V. Moiseenko, Innokentii E. Vishnyakov, Maria V. Yakunina, Olga S. Sokolova, Viruses, 12, 1197 (10), 2020
The giant phiKZ phage infection induces the appearance of a pseudo-nucleus inside the bacterial cytoplasm. Here, we used RT-PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), electron tomography, and analytical electron microscopy to study the morphology of this unique nucleus-like shell and to demonstrate the distribution of phiKZ and bacterial DNA in infected Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells. The maturation of the pseudo-nucleus was traced in short intervals for 40 min after infection and revealed the continuous spatial separation of the phage and host DNA. Immediately after ejection, phage DNA was located inside the newly-identified round compartments; at a later infection stage, it was replicated inside the pseudo-nucleus; in the mature pseudo-nucleus, a saturated internal network of filaments was observed. This network consisted of DNA bundles in complex with DNA-binding proteins. On the other hand, the bacterial nucleoid underwent significant rearrangements during phage infection, yet the host DNA did not completely degrade until at least 40 min after phage application. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed that, during the infection, the sulfur content in the bacterial cytoplasm increased, which suggests an increase of methionine-rich DNA-binding protein synthesis, whose role is to protect the bacterial DNA from stress caused by infection.
Fahmida Aktar, Chakkapong Burudpakdee, Mercedes Polanco, Sen Pei, Theresa C Swayne, Peter N Lipke, Lesley Emtage, Life Science Alliance, 2, e201900489 (5), 2019
Inclusions of disordered protein are a characteristic feature of most neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein; mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) is unstable and accumulates in large intracellular inclusions both in affected individuals and when expressed in eukaryotic cells. Using mHtt-GFP expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we find that mHtt-GFP inclusions are dynamic, mobile, gel-like structures that concentrate mHtt together with the disaggregase Hsp104. Although inclusions may associate with the vacuolar membrane, the association is reversible and we find that inclusions of mHtt in S. cerevisiae are not taken up by the vacuole or other organelles. Instead, a pulse-chase study using photoconverted mHtt-mEos2 revealed that mHtt is directly and continuously removed from the inclusion body. In addition to mobile inclusions, we also imaged and tracked the movements of small particles of mHtt-GFP and determine that they move randomly. These observations suggest that inclusions may grow through the collision and coalescence of small aggregative particles.
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