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automatic multi-liquid dispenser contact angle goniometer device
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About the DataPhysics OCAThe model DataPhysics OCA was found in 193 unique locations in 36 countries where it was mentioned from 2004 until recently. It is used by scientists in various research fields such as General Materials Science, General Chemistry, Polymers and Plastics, Biomaterials, and Condensed Matter Physics. The model is also used in General Medicine, Surfaces and Interfaces, Spectroscopy, Pharmaceutical Science, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Biotechnology, Electrochemistry, Materials Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Colloid and Surface Chemistry, General Chemical Engineering, General Physics and Astronomy, Process Chemistry and Technology, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Water Science and Technology, Drug Discovery, Molecular Biology, Analytical Chemistry, General Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, and Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials.
DataPhysics Instruments was founded in 1997 in Filderstadt, Germany with the goal to provide advanced laboratory instruments to measure physical quantities relevant to surfaces and interfaces. Today they have installed 2500+ instruments in laboratories all over the world, and offer various models of laboratory equipment such as spinning drop and force tensiometers, humidity generators & controllers, Langmuir troughs (dip coaters), and dispersion stability and zeta-potential analysers.https://www.dataphysics-instruments.com/
Research that uses the DataPhysics OCA
The combination of textiles and three-dimensional printing offers a wide range of research and application areas, but only publications in combination with fused deposition modeling processes can be found so far. In this article the possibility of printing resin directly on textiles in the stereolithography process is presented. A broad spectrum of textiles and surfaces is examined to clearly present the feasibility. It was found that printing directly on most textiles can be performed without major difficulties, while problems were only observed on smooth surfaces and coatings on textiles.
Different studies have shown that the incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) enables the production of composite materials with enhanced properties, which can find important applications in the biomedical field. In the present work, CNT/PDMS composite materials have been prepared to evaluate the effects of pristine and chemically functionalized CNT incorporation into PDMS on the composite’s thermal, electrical, and surface properties on bacterial adhesion in dynamic conditions. Initial bacterial adhesion was studied using a parallel-plate flow chamber assay performed in conditions prevailing in urinary tract devices (catheters and stents) using Escherichia coli as a model organism and PDMS as a control due to its relevance in these applications. The results indicated that the introduction of the CNTs in the PDMS matrix yielded, in general, less bacterial adhesion than the PDMS alone and that the reduction could be dependent on the surface chemistry of CNTs, with less adhesion obtained on the composites with pristine rather than functionalized CNTs. It was also shown CNT pre-treatment and incorporation by different methods affected the electrical properties of the composites when compared to PDMS. Composites enabling a 60% reduction in cell adhesion were obtained by CNT treatment by ball-milling, whereas an increase in electrical conductivity of seven orders of magnitude was obtained after solvent-mediated incorporation. The results suggest even at low CNT loading values (1%), these treatments may be beneficial for the production of CNT composites with application in biomedical devices for the urinary tract and for other applications where electrical conductance is required.
Wettability has been shown to influence oil recovery. This property has become central to low-salinity (LSW) and smart (SWF) water flooding recovery mechanisms research. The challenge lies in the fact that oil recovery results from the combined effects of solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interactions. This demands methods that allow an independent interpretation of wettability alteration contributions. The primary objective of this work is to assess changes in wettability through the application of Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) T 2 distribution and diffusion coefficient, starting with a well-controlled porous system, that is, glass beads, and then a model rock (Berea), in the presence of one phase, either oil or brine exclusively. Subsequently, two-phase fluid saturation was tested. For the glass beads, dimethyldichlorosilane was used to induce a hydrophobic response, as confirmed by contact angle experiments on slides of the same material. Sodium sulfate was used for its known positive influence on oil recovery during LSW and SWF. In cases where alteration of surface properties was expected, a leftward shift of the average T 2 distribution curve modes, accompanied by a reduction on the diffusion coefficient during the aging process was observed. The results of this work confirm that fluid-solid interactions during LSW and SWF, namely a shift in wettability, take place after the injection of low-salinity water.
In this study, an industrially scalable method is reported for the fabrication of polylactic acid (PLA)/silver nanoparticle (AgNP) nanocomposite filaments by an in-situ reduction reactive melt mixing method. The PLA/AgNP nanocomposite filaments have been produced initially reducing silver ions (Ag+) arising from silver nitrate (AgNO3) precursor mixed in the polymer melt to elemental silver (Ag0) nanoparticles, utilizing polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), respectively, as macromolecular blend compound reducing agents. PEG and PVP were added at various concentrations, to the PLA matrix. The PLA/AgNP filaments have been used to manufacture 3D printed antimicrobial (AM) parts by Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF). The 3D printed PLA/AgNP parts exhibited significant AM properties examined by the reduction in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria viability (%) experiments at 30, 60, and 120 min duration of contact (p < 0.05; p-value (p): probability). It could be envisaged that the 3D printed parts manufactured and tested herein mimic nature’s mechanism against bacteria and in terms of antimicrobial properties, contact angle for their anti-adhesive behavior and mechanical properties could create new avenues for the next generation of low-cost and on-demand additive manufacturing produced personal protective equipment (PPE) as well as healthcare and nosocomial antimicrobial equipment.
Medical-grade poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely employed in the fabrication of intraocular lenses (IOLs), but suffers from opacification, a postoperative complication that leads to the failure of the implanted intraocular lenses. The opacification occurs when inorganic-based deposits accumulate on the surface of the IOL and are prevalent in hydrophilic materials. Here, the surface of medical-grade PMMA has been fluorinated by sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) plasma treatment to increase surface hydrophobicity thus improving the material lifetime in optical applications. Hydrophobic properties of the treated PMMA were investigated by means of contact angle measurements, while chemical modification was assessed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR/FTIR) spectroscopy. Surface morphological changes due to possible etching effects were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The transparency of the treated PMMA was assessed by UV/VIS spectroscopy. Finally, the influence of the plasma treatment on the inorganic salts deposition was investigated by immersion in Simulated Aqueous Humour (SAH), followed by XPS analysis. The modified samples showed less deposition on the surface than the unmodified sample, moreover, a decrease of the transmittance in the UV-violet range (300–430 nm) was detected, open the possibility of interesting applications of this treatment for the creation of a UV filter in ophthalmic optical devices.
Soiling of solar module cover glass is a serious problem for solar asset managers. It causes a reduction in power output due to attenuation of the incident light, and reduces the return on investment. Regular cleaning is required to mitigate the effect but this is a costly procedure. The application of transparent hydrophobic, anti-soiling coatings to the cover glass is a promising solution. These coatings have low surface energy and contaminants do not adhere well. Even if soiling does remain on the coated surface, it is much more easily removed during cleaning. The performance of the coatings is determined using the water contact angle and roll-off angle measurements. However, although hydrophobic coatings hold out great promise, outdoor testing revealed degradation that occurs surprisingly quickly. In this study, we report on results using laboratory-based damp heat and UV exposure environmental tests. We used SEM surface imaging and XPS surface chemical analysis to study the mechanisms that lead to coating degradation. Loss of surface fluorine from the coatings was observed and this appeared to be a major issue. Loss of nanoparticles was also observed. Blistering of surfaces also occurs, leading to loss of coating material. This was probably due to the movement of retained solvents and was caused by insufficient curing. This mechanism is avoidable if care is taken for providing and carrying out carefully specified curing conditions. All these symptoms correlate well with observations taken from parallel outdoor testing. Identification of the mechanisms involved will inform the development of more durable anti-soiling, hydrophobic coatings for solar application.
The effect of glycerol (GLY) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) additives on the properties of silica aerogel-like monoliths obtained from methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) precursor was assessed. The tested molar ratios of additive/precursor were from 0 to 0.1 and the lowest bulk densities were obtained with a ratio of 0.025. When a washing step was performed in the sample containing the optimum PEG ratio, the bulk density could be reduced even further. The analysis of the material’s microstructure allowed us to conclude that GLY, if added in an optimum amount, originates a narrower pore size distribution with a higher volume of mesopores and specific surface area. The PEG additive played a binder effect, leading to the filling of micropores and the appearance of large pores (macropores), which caused a reduction in the specific surface area. The reduction of the bulk density and the microstructural changes in the aerogels induced by adding a small amount of these additives confirm the possibility of fine control of properties of these lightweight materials. The achieved high porosity (97%) and low thermal conductivity (~35 mW·m−1·K−1) makes them suitable to be used as thermal insulators.
The use of implants can be hampered by chronic inflammatory reactions, which may result in failure of the implanted device. To prevent such an outcome, the present study examines the anti-inflammatory properties of surface coatings made of either hyaluronic acid (HA) or heparin (Hep) in combination with chitosan (Chi) prepared as multilayers through the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The properties of glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-modified surfaces were characterized in terms of surface topography, thickness and wettability. Results showed a higher thickness and hydrophilicity after multilayer formation compared to poly (ethylene imine) control samples. Moreover, multilayers containing either HA or Hep dampened the inflammatory response visible by reduced adhesion, formation of multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) and IL-1β release, which was studied using THP-1 derived macrophages. Furthermore, investigations regarding the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of GAG were focused on nuclear transcription factor-кB (NF-κB)-related signal transduction. Immunofluorescence staining of the p65 subunit of NF-κB and immunoblotting were performed that showed a significant decrease in NF-κB level in macrophages on GAG-based multilayers. Additionally, the association of FITC-labelled GAG was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry showing that macrophages were able to associate with and take up HA and Hep. Overall, the Hep-based multilayers demonstrated the most suppressive effect making this system most promising to control macrophage activation after implantation of medical devices. The results provide an insight on the anti-inflammatory effects of GAG not only based on their physicochemical properties, but also related to their mechanism of action toward NF-κB signal transduction.
Bone exhibits piezoelectric properties. Thus, electrical stimulations such as pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) and stimuli-responsive piezoelectric properties of scaffolds have been investigated separately to evaluate their efficacy in supporting osteogenesis. However, current understanding of cells responding under the combined influence of PEMF and piezoelectric properties in scaffolds is still lacking. Therefore, in this study, we fabricated piezoelectric scaffolds by functionalization of polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) films with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) coating that is self-polarized by a modified breath-figure technique. The osteoinductive properties of these PVDF-coated PCL-TCP films on MC3T3-E1 cells were studied under the stimulation of PEMF. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric characterization demonstrated that scaffolds with piezoelectric coefficient d33 = −1.2 pC/N were obtained at a powder dissolution temperature of 100 °C and coating relative humidity (RH) of 56%. DNA quantification showed that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by PEMF as low as 0.6 mT and 50 Hz. Hydroxyapatite staining showed that cell mineralization was significantly enhanced by incorporation of PVDF coating. Gene expression study showed that the combination of PEMF and PVDF coating promoted late osteogenic gene expression marker most significantly. Collectively, our results suggest that the synergistic effects of PEMF and piezoelectric scaffolds on osteogenesis provide a promising alternative strategy for electrically augmented osteoinduction. The piezoelectric response of PVDF by PEMF, which could provide mechanical strain, is particularly interesting as it could deliver local mechanical stimulation to osteogenic cells using PEMF.
The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the major pest of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.), and a serious threat in all of the Mediterranean Region. In the present investigation, we demonstrated with traction force experiments that B. oleae female adhesion is reduced by epicuticular waxes (EWs) fruit surface, and that the olive fruit fly shows a different ability to attach to the ripe olive surface of different cultivars of O. europaea (Arbequina, Carolea, Dolce Agogia, Frantoio, Kalamata, Leccino, Manzanilla, Picholine, Nostrale di Rigali, Pendolino and San Felice) in terms of friction force and adhesion, in relation with different mean values of olive surface wettability. Cryo-scanning morphological investigation revealed that the EW present on the olive surface of the different analyzed cultivars are represented by irregular platelets varying in the orientation, thus contributing to affect the surface microroughness and wettability in the different cultivars, and consequently the olive fruit fly attachment. Further investigations to elucidate the role of EW in olive varietal resistance to the olive fruit fly in relation to the olive developmental stage and environmental conditions could be relevant to develop control methods alternative to the use of harmful pesticides.
Leaf insects (Phasmatodea: Phylliidae) exhibit perfect crypsis imitating leaves. Although the special appearance of the eggs of the species Phyllium philippinicum, which imitate plant seeds, has received attention in different taxonomic studies, the attachment capability of the eggs remains rather anecdotical. We herein elucidate the specialized attachment mechanism of the eggs of this species and provide the first experimental approach to systematically characterize the functional properties of their adhesion by using different microscopy techniques and attachment force measurements on substrates with differing degrees of roughness and surface chemistry, as well as repetitive attachment/detachment cycles while under the influence of water contact. We found that a combination of folded exochorionic structures (pinnae) and a film of adhesive secretion contribute to attachment, which both respond to water. Adhesion is initiated by the glue, which becomes fluid through hydration, enabling adaption to the surface profile. Hierarchically structured pinnae support the spreading of the glue and reinforcement of the film. This combination aids the egg’s surface in adapting to the surface roughness, yet the attachment strength is additionally influenced by the egg’s surface chemistry, favoring hydrophilic substrates. Repetitive detachment and water-mediated adhesion can optimize the location of the egg to ensure suitable environmental conditions for embryonic development. Furthermore, this repeatable and water-controlled adhesion mechanism can stimulate further research for biomimeticists, ecologists and conservationalists.
By copolymerizing an amphiphilic oxanorbornene monomer bearing N- tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) protected cationic groups with an oxanorbornene-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) macromonomer, bifunctional comb copolymers were obtained. Varying the comonomer ratios led to copolymers with PEG contents between 5–25 mol %. These polymers were simultaneously surface-immobilized on benzophenone-bearing substrates and cross-linked with pentaerythritoltetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate). They were then immersed into HCl to remove the Boc groups. The thus obtained surface-attached polymer hydrogels (called SMAMP*-co-PEG) were simultaneously antimicrobial and protein-repellent. Physical characterization data showed that the substrates used were homogeneously covered with the SMAMP*-co-PEG polymer, and that the PEG moieties tended to segregate to the polymer–air interface. Thus, with increasing PEG content, the interface became increasingly hydrophilic and protein-repellent, as demonstrated by a protein adhesion assay. With 25 mol % PEG, near-quantitative protein-adhesion was observed. The antimicrobial activity of the SMAMP*-co-PEG polymers originates from the electrostatic interaction of the cationic groups with the negatively charged cell envelope of the bacteria. However, the SMAMP*-co-PEG surfaces were only fully active against E. coli, while their activity against S. aureus was already compromised by as little as 5 mol % (18.8 mass %) PEG. The long PEG chains seem to prevent the close interaction of bacteria with the surface, and also might reduce the surface charge density.
This study demonstrates an electron beam physical vapour deposition approach as an alternative stainless steel thin films fabrication method with controlled layer thickness and uniform particles distribution capability. The films were fabricated at a range of starting electron beam power percentages of 3–10%, and thickness of 50–150 nm. Surface topography and wettability analysis of the samples were investigated to observe the changes in surface microstructure and the contact angle behaviour of 20 °C to 60 °C deionised waters, of pH 4, pH 7, and pH 9, with the as-prepared surfaces. The results indicated that films fabricated at low controlled deposition rates provided uniform particles distribution and had the closest elemental percentages to stainless steel 316L and that increasing the deposition thickness caused the surface roughness to reduce by 38%. Surface wettability behaviour, in general, showed that the surface hydrophobic nature tends to weaken with the increase in temperature of the three examined fluids.
Carbon-based materials are outstanding candidates for oil spill clean-ups due to their superhydrophobicity, high surface area, chemical inertness, low density, recyclability, and selectivity. The current work deals with the fabrication of membrane oil absorbents based on carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites by electrospinning technique. The spun membranes are also irradiated with the gamma radiation to induce enough crosslinks and thus good polymer-filler interactions. The structural, morphological, and surface properties in addition to the oil/water separation efficiency were investigated by varying the concentration of CNT and the dose of γ-irradiation. Fabricated nanofiber membranes show superior hydrophobicity and selective oil absorption at 0.5 wt.% of CNT concentration. The best mechanical properties are also obtained at this particular concentration and at 15 KGy optimum γ-irradiation dosage. The gamma irradiated PS/0.5 wt.% CNT membrane also exhibits good antibacterial effects against the bacteria, Escherichia coli, in the form of bacterial inhibition rings around the membranes. The present study thus shows the environmental applicability of the fabricated PS/CNT membranes in treating oil-contaminated water.
The physical and mechanical properties of wood (WPC) and biochar polymer composites (BPC) obtained at different pyro-gasification temperatures and different fiber proportions were investigated. Composite pellets made from wood chips or biochar and thermoplastic polymers (polypropylene or high-density polyethylene) were obtained by twin-screw extrusion, and test specimens were prepared by injection molding. Results showed that BPCs were more dimensionally stable compared to WPCs, but their mechanical properties decreased with increasing pyro-gasification temperatures due to the poor adhesion between the polymer and biochar. Indeed, FTIR investigations revealed the decrease or absence of hydroxyl groups on biochar, which prevents the coupling agent from reacting with the biochar surface. The change in the biochar chemical structure led to an improvement in the dimensional stability and hydrophobicity of the biocomposites. Despite the increased dimensional stability of BPCs compared to WPCs, BPCs still adsorb water. This was explained by the surface roughness and by the biochar agglomerations present in the composite. In conclusion, the thermochemical conversion of black spruce wood chips into biochar makes it brittle but more hydrophobic, thereby reducing the wettability of the BPCs.
Nanofibrous structures mimicking the native extracellular matrix have attracted considerable attention for biomedical applications. The present study aims to design and produce drug-eluting core-shell fibrous scaffolds for wound healing and skin tissue engineering. Aloe vera extracts were encapsulated inside polymer fibers containing chitosan, polycaprolactone, and keratin using the co-axial electrospinning technique. Electron microscopic studies show that continuous and uniform fibers with an average diameter of 209 ± 47 nm were successfully fabricated. The fibers have a core-shell structure with a shell thickness of about 90 nm, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. By employing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the characteristic peaks of Aloe vera were detected, which indicate successful incorporation of this natural herb into the polymeric fibers. Tensile testing and hydrophilicity measurements indicated an ultimate strength of 5.3 MPa (elongation of 0.63%) and water contact angle of 89°. In-vitro biological assay revealed increased cellular growth and adhesion with the presence of Aloe vera without any cytotoxic effects. The prepared core-shell fibrous mats containing medical herbs have a great potential for wound healing applications.
New ecological trends and changes in consumer behavior are known to favor biofilm formation in household appliances, increasing the need for new antimicrobial materials and surfaces. Their development requires laboratory-cultivated biofilms, or biofilm model systems (BMS), which allow for accelerated growth and offer better understanding of the underlying formation mechanisms. Here, we identified bacterial strains in wildtype biofilms from a variety of materials from domestic appliances using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS). Staphylococci and pseudomonads were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS as the main genera in the habitats and were analyzed for biofilm formation using various in vitro methods. Standard quantitative biofilm assays were combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize biofilm formation. While Pseudomonas putida, a published lead germ, was not identified in any of the collected samples, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most dominant biofilm producer. Water-born Pseudomonads were dominantly found in compartments with water contact only, such as in detergent compartment and detergent enemata. Furthermore, materials in contact with the washing load are predominantly colonized with bacteria from the human.
Acid mine drainage is an environmental problem associated with mining operations and activities. Its treatment is essential to achieving environmental sustainability. In this study, a polyethersulphone (PES) membrane infused with chitosan is proposed as a point-of-use material for treating acid mine drainage (AMD). The composite material explored the synergetic effect between chitosan and polymer, particularly considering the effect of the degree of deacetylation (DD) of chitosan on the performance of membrane. Chitosan was produced from chitin under various synthesis process conditions and infused within polyethersulphone membrane. The results obtained show that chitosan with the highest degree of deacetylation was achieved with a temperature of 100 °C and NaOH concentration of 40 wt%. Increasing the temperature above 100 °C started degrading already formed or exposed amine groups, thus, reducing the DD of the chitosan sample. The contact angle and porosity analysis indicated that the hydrophilic nature of the membrane was enhanced with increasing DD of the chitosan. The performance of the membranes was conducted on a Dead-end filtration cell using synthetic acid mine drainage. The results showed that the flux and rejection of the membrane was enhanced with increasing degree of deacetylation. PES 5 and PES 1 were blended with chitosan having the highest (95.97%) and lowest (33.93%) degree of deacetylation, respectively. PES 5 reported pure water flux of 123 L/m2·h and PES 1 was recorded as 104 L/m2·h. Similarly, the rejection of the membrane was improved with increasing chitosan’s degree of deacetylation. PES 5 had higher rejection and PES 1 had the least rejection. Maximum rejection for the contaminants was determined as 98.05, 97.39, 96.25, 95.24 and 80.34% for Mn2+, Fe2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ and SO42−, respectively. The results obtained show that chitosan’s degree of deacetylation has a positive effect on the performance of polyethersulphone membrane during the treatment of acid mine drainage.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a robust material and proven as a promising candidate for a wide range of electronic, optoelectronic and environmental applications. In this work, two different methods were utilized for the preparation of CNTs exhibiting different aspect ratios via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The as-prepared CNTs were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2adsorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy in order to investigate their morphological and structural properties. Free-standing CNTs “buckypaper” membranes were fabricated, characterized and tailored to meet the requirements of two applications, i.e., (1) the removal of humic acid (HA) from water and (2) separation of oil-in-water emulsions. It was revealed that the hydrophobic buckypapers showed high separation performance for Shell oil-in-water emulsions filtration, with up to 98% through the accumulation of oil droplets onto the membrane surface. The absorption capacity of buckypaper membranes for various organic liquids (oil, chloroform and toluene) was evaluated over 10 absorption cycles to investigate their recyclability and robustness. Moreover, surface modification was introduced to the pristine CNTs to increase their surface hydrophilicity and improve the pure water permeability of buckypapers. These modified buckypapers showed high flux for HA solutions and excellent HA rejection efficiency up to 95%via size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion mechanisms.
This study focuses on the development of flat sheet thin film nanocomposite (TFN) pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membranes for the enhancement of osmotic power generation by the incorporation of laboratory-synthesised graphene oxide (GO) into the polysulfone (PSf) polymer matrix. A series of membranes containing different weight percent of GO (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 wt%) were fabricated via a phase inversion method with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the pore forming agent. The results show that the TFN-0.25GO membrane has excellent water flux, salt reverse flux, high porosity and an enhanced microvoids morphology compared to the control membrane. The highest power density was achieved when TFN-0.25GO was used is 8.36 Wm−2 at pressure >15 bar. It was found that the incorporation of GO into the polymer matrix has significantly improved the intrinsic and mechanical properties of the membrane.
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