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prism sequence detection, sequence detector, instrument, instrument, machine
This model was found at
2243 locations
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About the Applied Biosystems 7900

The model Applied Biosystems 7900 was found in 2243 unique locations in 54 countries where it was mentioned from 2004 until recentlyIt is used by scientists in various research fields such as Cancer Research, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Oncology, and General Medicine. The model is also used in Immunology, Cell Biology, Immunology and Allergy, General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Molecular Medicine, Biochemistry, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, Pharmacology, Genetics (clinical), Physiology, Internal Medicine, Biotechnology, General Neuroscience, General Chemistry, General Physics and Astronomy, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Microbiology, Developmental Biology, Toxicology, Infectious Diseases, Neurology, Organic Chemistry, Medicine, and Clinical Biochemistry.
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Research that uses the Applied Biosystems 7900

Yanjun Zheng, Guoqing Wan, Bo Yang, Xuefeng Gu, Jingrong Lin, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2020, 1-13, 2020
Purpose. Emerging evidence has shown that pinocembrin protects the myocardium from ischemic injury in animals. However, it is unknown whether it has cardioprotection when given at the onset of reperfusion. Also, mechanisms mediating the cardioprotective actions of pinocembrin were largely unknown. Thus, this study is aimed at investigating the effects of pinocembrin postconditioning on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. The in vivo mouse model of myocardial I/R injury, ex vivo isolated rat heart with global I/R, and in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model for primary cardiomyocytes were used. Results. We found that pinocembrin postconditioning significantly reduced the infarct size and improved cardiac contractile function after acute myocardial I/R. Mechanically, in primary cardiomyocytes, we found that pinocembrin may confer protection in part via direct stimulation of cardiac glycolysis via promoting the expression of the glycolytic enzyme, PFKFB3. Besides, PFKFB3 inhibition abolished pinocembrin-induced glycolysis and protection in cardiomyocytes. More importantly, PFKFB3 knockdown via cardiotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV) abrogated cardioprotective effects of pinocembrin. Moreover, we demonstrated that HIF1α is a key transcription factor driving pinocembrin-induced PFKFB3 expression in cardiomyocytes. Conclusions. In conclusion, these results established that the acute cardioprotective benefits of pinocembrin are mediated in part via enhancing PFKFB3-mediated glycolysis via HIF1α, which may provide a new therapeutic target to impede the progression of myocardial I/R injury.
Qiliang Chen, Yaojun Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xinyu Jiang, Yuqin Zhang, Tetsuya Asakawa, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020, 1-10, 2020
Background. The neuroprotective effects of Paeoniflorin (PF) are well known. Most of the evidence was verified in vivo. We attempted to perform an in vitro verification of the effects of PF in microglia. Methods. A lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) exposed microglia model was employed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of cytokines in the culture supernatants. A real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the mRNA expression of cytokines and M1- and M2-like genes. A western blot analysis was used to examine the expression of proteins associated with the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Results. We found that the administration of PF reversed the inflammatory response induced by LPS. It downregulated proinflammatory cytokines and upregulated anti-inflammatory cytokines. This, in turn, alleviated the oxidative injuries, downregulated the expression of M1-like genes, and upregulated the expression of M2-like genes. PF can also reverse the changes in proteins associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway induced by LPS. Conclusions. We provided evidence obtained in vitro concerning the neuroprotective effects of PF via suppressing activation of microglia, which might be associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings contribute to obtaining a deeper understanding of PF, a potential new treatment for brain injuries.
Wen Meng, Jingfei Meng, Hong Jiang, Xing Feng, Dongshan Wei, Qingsong Ding, Analytical Cellular Pathology, 2020, 1-11, 2020
Objective. To study the expression, biological function, and mechanism of FKBP4 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods. First of all, the expression of FKBP4 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines was detected by qRT-PCR; then, the effects of FKBP4 on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of NSCLC were studied by CCK-8 assays, flow cytometry assays, wound-healing assays, and Transwell assays. After that, tumor xenografts were used to explore the effect of FKBP4 on NSCLC tumor growth in vivo, and the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR was measured by western blot. Results. FKBP4 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and cells, and its expression was closely related to NSCLC tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and patient prognosis. In vitro, FKBP4 can promote NSCLC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and inhibit NSCLC cell apoptosis. In vivo, FKBP4 can promote NSCLC tumor growth. Furthermore, FKBP4 can promote Akt and mTOR phosphorylation and activate the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and an mTOR inhibitor can neutralize the functions of FKBP4 in NSCLC cells. Conclusion. FKBP4 serves as an oncogene to promote malignant processes in NSCLC, and it has the potential to be used as a biological marker and therapeutic target for NSCLC.
Xiaodong Feng, Zhijun Zhang, Peng Sun, Guanghui Song, Lu Wang, Zhenqing Sun, Ning Yuan, Qing Wang, Limin Lun, Disease Markers, 2020, 1-9, 2020
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) belongs to the IL-1 family and is an essential proinflammatory and immune regulatory cytokine. The present study was designed to investigate the expression and function of IL-18 in colon cancer. In clinical analyses, mRNA and protein expressions of IL-18 were decreased in tissues of colon cancer patients. This decreased expression of IL-18 was significantly correlated with the tumor size ( P = 0.001 ) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage ( P = 0.013 ). Patients with IL-18-positive tumors had a better survival rate than patients with IL-18-negative tumors. Moreover, upregulation of IL-18 inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation. Our data suggest that the decreased expression of IL-18 in colon cancer was associated with prognosis and tumor proliferation. IL-18 may be considered a novel tumor suppressor and a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer patients.
Li Li, Qinghua Meng, Guoying Li, Limei Zhao, BioMed Research International, 2020, 1-9, 2020
Objective. Our research is designed to explore the function of brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1) in the progression of gastric cancer (GC) and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods. In this study, the expression of BASP1 was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in both GC tissue and GC cells. The cell cloning, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion potential of AGS and HGC-27 cells were, respectively, determined using colony formation assay, 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EDU) assay, flow cytometry, and Transwell assay. The protein expressions of Bax, caspase-3, Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), Wnt, and β-catenin in AGS and HGC-27 cells were measured by western blot. In addition, the mRNA expressions of WT1, Wnt, and β-catenin in AGS and HGC-27 cells were detected by qRT-PCR. Results. BASP1 expression was significantly downregulated in both GC tissue and GC cells. BASP1 overexpression markedly repressed proliferation, migration, and invasion and facilitated apoptosis in AGS and HGC-27 cells. In addition, BASP1 overexpression notably promoted the protein expression of Bax and caspase-3 in AGS and HGC-27 cells and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Moreover, BASP1 overexpression significantly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of WT1, Wnt, and β-catenin in AGS and HGC-27 cells. Conclusion. BASP1 could significantly suppress cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and promote apoptosis through inhibiting the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in GC.
Jian Lin, Gengfeng Li, Chunjin Xu, Huiying Lu, Cui Zhang, Zhi Pang, Zhanju Liu, Mediators of Inflammation, 2020, 1-15, 2020
Monocyte chemotactic protein 1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP-1) is highly expressed in activated immune cells and plays an important role in negatively regulating immune responses. However, its role in regulating neutrophil functions in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear. Here, we found that MCPIP-1 was markedly increased at both the transcriptional and translational levels in inflamed mucosa of IBD patients compared with healthy controls, which was mainly expressed in neutrophils. Interestingly, MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor reducing the degradation of MCPIP-1, further facilitated neutrophils to express MCPIP-1 in vitro. Importantly, MCPIP-1 markedly downregulated the production of ROS, MPO, and proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8, and interferon-γ) and suppressed the migration of IBD neutrophils. Consistently, the same functional changes were observed in neutrophils from mice with myeloid-targeted overexpression of MCPIP-1 as MG-132 did. Altogether, these findings suggest that MCPIP-1 plays a negative role in regulating neutrophil activities through suppressing the production of ROS, MPO, and proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the migration. MG-132 may partially modulate the function of neutrophils via the induction of MCPIP-1. Therefore, targeting MCPIP-1 or exogenous supplementation of MG-132 may provide a therapeutic approach in the treatment of IBD.
Yuqin Zhang, Hongyun Wang, Huang Li, Lihong Nan, Wei Xu, Yu Lin, Kedan Chu, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2021, 1-14, 2021
Pyroptosis is a proinflammatory form of regulated cell death that plays an important role in ischemic stroke. Gualou Guizhi granule (GLGZG) is a classic prescription that has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. In the present study, we examined the involvement of pyroptosis and its associated mechanism in protecting nerve function. Methods. Primary neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) conditions in the presence or absence of GLGZG. Cellular viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. The number of apoptoic cells was detected by NeuN and NSE protein expression. The expression levels of the pyroptosis markers, namely, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and IL-1β were determined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, western blot, and ELISA analyses as appropriate. Moreover, the expression levels of the PI3K/Akt pathway key proteins were determined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis and western blot assays. To determine the PI3K/Akt pathway involvement in GLGZG-mediated neuroprotection, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (LY, 10 μM) was added. The expression levels of NeuN, Akt, and p-Akt were evaluated. Results. It was found that GLGZG could inhibit OGD/R-induced cell apoptosis, increase neuronal cell viability, decrease the production of IL-18 and IL-1β, and downregulate the expression levels of pyroptosis markers (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1). Furthermore, GLGZG could modulate the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K pathway not only abrogated the effects of GLGZG on Akt but also neutralized its prosurvival and antipyroptotic actions. Conclusions. The findings indicated that GLGZG pretreatment effectively reduced OGD/R-induced injury by inhibiting cell pyroptosis and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. These data provide important evidence for the therapeutic applications of this regimen in ischemic stroke.
Jie Ji, Qiang Yu, Weiqi Dai, Liwei Wu, Jiao Feng, Yuanyuan Zheng, Yan Li, Chuanyong Guo, PPAR Research, 2021, 1-15, 2021
Objective. The aim of this study is to confirm the hepatocellular protective functions of apigenin and the molecular mechanism on liver fibrosis in mice. Methods. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and bile duct ligature (BDL) mouse fibrosis models were used to investigate the effects of apigenin on liver fibrosis. Sixty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into eight groups, including the vehicle group, CCl4 group, CCl4+L-apigenin (20 mg/kg) group, CCl4+H-apigenin (40 mg/kg) group, sham group, BDL group, BDL+L-apigenin(20 mg/kg) group, and BDL+H-apigenin(40 mg/kg) group. Serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST), proteins associated with autophagy, and indicators linked with the TGF-β1/Smad3 and p38/PPARα pathways were detected using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and western blotting. Results. Our findings confirmed that apigenin could decrease the levels of ALT and AST, suppress the generation of ECM, inhibit the activation of HSCs, regulate the balance of MMP2 and TIMP1, reduce the expression of autophagy-linked protein, and restrain the TGF-β1/Smad3 and p38/PPARα pathways. Conclusion. Apigenin could alleviate liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation and autophagy via TGF-β1/Smad3 and p38/PPARα pathways.
Hung-Lin Kan, Chia-Chi Wang, Yin-Hua Cheng, Chi-Lung Yang, Hsun-Shuo Chang, Ih-Sheng Chen, Ying-Chi Lin, PeerJ, 8, e10548, 2020
Background Rosacea is a common inflammatory disease of facial skin. Dysregulation of innate immunity with enhanced inflammation and increased abundance of LL-37 at the epidermal site is a characteristic feature of rosacea. Cinnamtannin B1 (CB1) is a condensed tannin with anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. The aims of the study were to evaluate the potential of CB1 as a therapy for rosacea and to characterize the potential mechanisms of action. Methods We intraperitoneally administered 20 mg/kg CB1 once daily for 2 days into the LL-37-induced mouse model of rosacea. The effects of CB1 in vivo were evaluated by the observations of lesions, histology, immunohistochemistry, and the transcription and translation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Human keratinocyte HaCaT and monocyte THP-1 were used to characterize the effects of CB1 on LL-37-induced inflammation in vitro. The changes in pro-inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the expressions of genes involved were determined by Western blotting. Results CB1 attenuated local redness, inflammation, and neutrophil recruitment in the mouse model of rosacea in vivo. CB1 suppressed myeloperoxidase (MPO) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) production, a functional homolog of interleukin-8 (IL-8), at the lesions. In vitro experiments confirmed that CB1 reversed the LL-37-induced IL-8 production in human keratinocytes HaCaT and monocyte THP-1 cells. CB1 inhibited IL-8 production through downregulating the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Conclusion CB1 attenuated LL-37-induced inflammation, specifically IL-8 production, through inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK. CB1 has potential as a treatment for rosacea.
Gaowu Hu, Wei Peng, Yongqing Cao, 2020
Abstract Background: Currently, more and more circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been identified to exert their functions in tumor progression, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the role of circSEC24A (circ_0003528) in CRC remains unknown.Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was conducted to determine the levels of circSEC24A, SEC24A and microRNA-488-3p (miR-488-3p). The characterization of circSEC24A was investigated by Actinomycin D and RNase R digestion assays. 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis was adopted for cell apoptosis and cell cycle process. Transwell assay was employed to evaluate cell migration and invasion. Western blot assay was performed to determine protein levels. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was utilized to explore the relationship between miR-488-3p and circSEC24A or transmembrane protein 106B (TMEM106B). Murine xenograft model was constructed to explore the effect of circSEC24A in vivo .Results: CircSEC24A level was increased in CRC tissues and cells. CircSEC24A deficiency impeded cell proliferation, cell cycle process, migration and invasion and induced apoptosis in CRC cells in vitro and blocked tumorigenesis in vivo . MiR-488-3p was a target of circSEC24A and miR-488-3p was downregulated in CRC tissues and cells. The inhibitory effect of circSEC24A silencing on CRC cell progression was restored by miR-488-3p inhibition. Moreover, TMEM106B could be negatively regulated by miR-488-3p via acting as a downstream gene of miR-488-3p. MiR-488-3p overexpression decelerated CRC cell progression by targeting TMEM106B.Conclusion: CircSEC24A facilitated CRC progression by regulating miR-488-3p/TMEM106B axis, which might provide a promising treatment approach for CRC.
Jie Yao, Ze-Fen Wang, Yong Cheng, Tian Lan, Chao Ma, Ya-Hua Zhong, Yi-Lei Xiao, Xu Gao, Zhi-Qiang Li, 2020
Abstract Background: Glioma, the most common primary brain tumor, account Preparing figures s for 30% to 40% of all intracranial tumors. Herein, we aimed to study the effects of M2 macrophage-derived exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) on glioma cells. Methods: First, we identified seven differentially expressed miRNAs in infiltrating macrophages and detected the expression of these seven miRNAs in M2 macrophages. We then selected hsa-miR-15a-5p (miR-15a) and hsa-miR-92a-3p (miR-92a) for follow-up studies, and confirmed that miR-15a and miR-92a were under-expressed in M2 macrophage exosomes. Subsequently, we demonstrated that M2 macrophage-derived exosomes promoted migration and invasion of glioma cells, while exosomal miR-15a and miR-92a had the opposite effects on glioma cells. Next, we performed the target gene prediction in four databases and conducted target gene validation by qRT-PCR, western blot and dual luciferase reporter gene assays. Results: The results revealed that miR-15a and miR-92a were bound to CCND1 and RAP1B, respectively. Western blot assays demonstrated that interference with the expression of CCND1 or RAP1B reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT and mTOR, indicating that both CCND1 and RAP1B can activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-15a and miR-92a inhibit cell migration and invasion of glioma cells through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
Wei Gan, Mei-Xia Zhang, Jin-Long Huang, Pei-Yun Zhou, Cheng Zhou, Gao Liu, Yi-Peng Fu, Bao-Ye Sun, Chu-Yu Jing, Ruo-Yu Guan, Zhu-Tao Wang, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Yong Yi, Shuang-Jian Qiu, 2020
Abstract Background: Recently, more and more treatment strategies for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have emerged, but the therapeutic effect is still not satisfactory. This study is aimed to explore the mechanism of Interleukin 35 (IL-35) in promoting the progression of liver cancer and to explore the application value of IL-35 in the treatment of HCC.Methods: We used clinical tissue microarray (TMA) immunohistochemistry (IHC) to explore the prognostic value of IL-35 expression in patients with HCC. The effect of IL-35 on the function of HCC was explored by functional experiments including wound-healing assay, transwell, cell counting kit-8, cell adhesion assay and endothelial tube formation assay in vitro and mouse xenografts in vivo. And flow cytometry was used to study the effect of IL-35 on infiltrating immune cells in tumor. The molecular mechanism of the function of IL-35 on the progression of HCC was explored by sequencing, ELISA, WB, PCR and other technical means. Finally, through in vivo tumor animal experiments to explore the value of anti-IL-35 antibody and combined with anti-PD-1 antibody in the treatment of liver cancer.Results: High expression of IL-35 in patients with HCC were identified to be associated with poor prognosis. And we have found that IL-35 facilitated tumor progression by affecting neutrophil infiltration, angiogenesis, and CD8+ T-cell infiltration in a mouse model. Additionally, on the one hand C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) has been found to be a key factor mediating the recruitment of neutrophils by IL-35, on the other hand fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) secreting by neutrophil when stimulated by IL-35 was also found to be the core cytokine to promote intratumoral angiogenesis. And IL-35 was also discovered to facilitated the adhesion of tumor to endothelial cells, with neutrophils further enhancing this effect in vitro and vivo. More important, anti-IL-35 antibody was found to be a valid treatment for HCC in xenograft tumor model, and it could give full play to the curative effect of 1:1>2 when combination therapy with PD-1 antibody.Conclusion: Our data show that the expression of IL-35 in patients with HCC is an important tumor promoting factor. The application of anti-IL-35 antibody and treatment combined anti-IL-35 antibody with anti-PD-1 antibody have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of liver cancer.
Xiaoyi Liu, Jianxia Hu, Kui Che, Jingwei Chi, Zhengju Fu, Xiangping Liu, haibo wang, 2020
Abstract Background Deltex1 (DTX1) was found to play its role in the development of several kinds of cancer. The association between DTX1 and breast cancer was unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between DTX1 expression and clinical characteristics of breast cancer, further explore the possible mechanisms of DTX1 on the development of breast cancer. Methods We determined level of DTX1 expression by qRT-PCR, analyzed association between DTX1 and clinical characteristics of breast cancer by student’s test and ANOVA test. The possible mechanisms of DTX1 on the development of breast cancer were explored with breast cancer cell lines in vitro. Results Levels of DTX1 in breast cancer tissues were lower compared to FCD tissues and peri-neoplastic breast tissues (P<0.01). Lower expression of DTX1 was associated with advanced tumor grade (grade III, P=0.002), advanced clinical TNM stage (III-IV stage, P=0.017), positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.034) and high Ki-67 index (P=0.031). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that DTX1 expression was recognized as an independent prognostic factor for MFS in breast cancer. Elevated levels of Notch1, Jagged1 and HES1 in NOTCH pathway and p-Akt/PKB in PI3K/AKT pathway were found in breast cancer cells with lower DTX1 expression. GSI treatment could inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation and migration through NOTCH/DTX1/PI3K/AKT pathways. Conclusion Lower DTX1 in breast tissues was associated with advanced condition, prognosis and metastasis of breast cancer. Lower DTX1 might promote breast cancer cell proliferation and migration via NOTCH/DTX1/PI3K/AKT pathways. DTX1 might be useful as a marker to select new therapy for breast cancer.
P. Duc Dong, Joseph Lancman, Clyde Campbell, Raquel Espin-Palazon, Jonatan Matalonga, Jiaye He, Alyssa Graves, Rashmi Mishra, Jun Yin, Chengjian Zhao, Xin-Xin Zeng, Jan Huisken, David Traver, 2020
Abstract The extent to which differentiated cells, while remaining in their native microenvironment, can be reprogrammed to assume a different identity will reveal fundamental insight into cellular plasticity and impact regenerative medicine. To investigate in vivo cell lineage potential, we leveraged the zebrafish as a practical vertebrate platform to determine factors and mechanisms necessary to induce differentiated cells of one germ layer to adopt the lineage of another. We discovered that ectopic co-expression of Sox32 and Oct4 in several non-endoderm lineages, including skeletal muscle, can specifically trigger an early endoderm genetic program in a cell-autonomous manner. Gene expression, live imaging, and functional studies reveal that the endoderm-induced muscle cells lose muscle gene expression and morphology, while specifically gaining endoderm organogenesis lineage markers, such as the pancreatic specification genes, hhex and ptf1a, via a mechanism resembling normal development. Endoderm induction by a pluripotent defective form of Oct4, endoderm markers appearing prior to loss of muscle cell morphology, and a lack of mesoderm, ectoderm, dedifferentiation, and pluripotency gene activation, together, suggests that reprogramming is endoderm specific and occurs via direct transdifferentiation. Our work demonstrates that within a living vertebrate animal, differentiated cells can be induced to directly adopt the identity of a completely unrelated cell lineage, while remaining in a distinct microenvironment, suggesting that differentiated cells in vivo may be more amenable to lineage conversion than previously appreciated. This discovery of extensive lineage potential of differentiated cells, in vivo, challenges our understanding of cell lineage restriction and may pave the way towards new in vivo sources of replacement cells for degenerative diseases such as diabetes.
Yonghong Liu, Zhiyong Zhang, Wenjing Li, Songbo Tian, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8, 2020
Pulpitis is a frequent bacterially driven inflammation featured with the local accumulation of inflammatory products in human dental pulps. A GEO dataset GSE16134 comprising data of inflamed dental pulp tissues was used for bioinformatics analyses. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis suggested that chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) owned a high correlation with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1). A rat model with pulpitis was established, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPFs) were used for in vitro experiments. Then, high expression of PECAM1 and CXCR4 was validated in the inflamed dental pulp tissues in rats and in LPS-induced HDPFs. Either downregulation of PECAM1 or CXCR4 suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration in inflamed tissues as well as the inflammation and apoptosis of HDPFs. A transcription factor myocyte-enhancer factor 2 (MEF2C) was predicted and validated as a positive regulator of either PECAM1 or CXCR4, which activated the NF-κB signaling pathway and promoted pulpitis progression. To sum up, this study suggested that MEF2C transcriptionally activates PECAM1 and CXCR4 to activate the B-cell and NF-κB signaling pathways, leading to inflammatory cell infiltration and pulpitis progression.
Weidi Wang, Yucan Chen, Jingjing Zhao, Liang Chen, Weichen Song, Li Li, Guan Ning Lin, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 9, 2021
Nuclear receptor SET domain protein (NSD2) plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Wolf–Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) and is overexpressed in multiple human myelomas, but its protein–protein interaction (PPI) patterns, particularly at the isoform/exon levels, are poorly understood. We explored the subcellular localizations of four representative NSD2 transcripts with immunofluorescence microscopy. Next, we used label-free quantification to perform immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry (IP-MS) analyses of the transcripts. Using the interaction partners for each transcript detected in the IP-MS results, we identified 890 isoform-specific PPI partners (83% are novel). These PPI networks were further divided into four categories of the exon-specific interactome. In these exon-specific PPI partners, two genes, RPL10 and HSPA8, were successfully confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. RPL10 primarily interacted with Isoforms 1, 3, and 5, and HSPA8 interacted with all four isoforms, respectively. Using our extended NSD2 protein interactions, we constructed an isoform-level PPI landscape for NSD2 to serve as reference interactome data for NSD2 spliceosome-level studies. Furthermore, the RNA splicing processes supported by these isoform partners shed light on the diverse roles NSD2 plays in WHS and myeloma development. We also validated the interactions using Western blotting, RPL10, and the three NSD2 (Isoform 1, 3, and 5). Our results expand gene-level NSD2 PPI networks and provide a basis for the treatment of NSD2-related developmental diseases.
Xiao-Xi Pan, Kang-Li Yao, Yong-Feng Yang, Qian Ge, Run Zhang, Ping-Jin Gao, Cheng-Chao Ruan, Fang Wu, Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 9, 2021
Aging-associated chronic inflammation is a key contributing factor to a cluster of chronic metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Immune cells particularly T cells accumulate in adipose tissue with advancing age, and there exists a cross talk between T cell and preadipocyte, contributing to age-related adipose tissue remodeling. Here, we compared the difference in morphology and function of adipose tissue between young (3-month-old) and old (18-month-old) mice and showed the phenomenon of brown adipose tissue (BAT) “whitening” in old mice. Flow cytometry analysis suggested an increased proportion of T cells in BAT of old mice comparing with the young and exhibited senescent characteristics. We take advantage of coculture system to demonstrate directly that senescent T cells inhibited brown adipocyte differentiation of preadipocytes in adipose tissue. Mechanistically, both in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that senescent T cells produced and released a higher level of IFN-γ, which plays a critical role in inhibition of preadipocyte-to-brown adipocyte differentiation. Taken together, the data indicate that senescent T cell-derived IFN-γ is a key regulator in brown adipocyte differentiation.
Wenhao Su, Yongyu Chen, Pan Cao, Yan Chen, Yuanmei Guo, Siwei Wang, Weiguo Dong, Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 10, 2020
There is a growing body of evidence which suggests that intestinal microbiota, especially Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), are associated with intestinal immune disease such as ulcerative colitis (UC). The mechanism by which F. nucleatum promotes intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) death remained undefined. Here, we investigated the potential mechanisms about how F. nucleatum aggravates IEC death in UC. We first detected the abundance of F. nucleatum in UC tissues and analyzed its relationship with the clinical characteristics of UC. Next, we explored whether F. nucleatum promotes intestinal epithelial cell death in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the F. nucleatum and examined whether F. nucleatum exacerbates UC via LPS. Our results indicated that F. nucleatum was abundant in UC tissues and was correlated with clinical characteristics. In addition, we demonstrated that F. nucleatum and its LPS aggravated IEC death by promoted IEC autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitors, chloroquine (CQ), 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or Atg5 silencing prevented IEC death mediated by F. nucleatum, which suggests F. nucleatum may contribute to UC by activating autophagic cell death. All our results uncover a vital role of F. nucleatum in autophagic cell death and UC, giving rise to a new sight for UC therapy by inhibiting excessive IEC autophagy and autophagic cell death.
Hong-jin Chen, Xiao-xi Pan, Li-li-qiang Ding, Cheng-chao Ruan, Ping-jin Gao, Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 8, 2021
Cardiac remodeling consisted of ventricular hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis is the pathological process of many heart diseases. Fibroblasts as one of the major cells in the myocardium regulate the balance of the generation and degeneration of collagen, and these cells transform toward myofibroblasts in pathological state, contributing to the remodeling of the heart. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is vital to the function of mitochondria, which contributes to the energy production and reactive oxidative species (ROS)-scavenging activity in the heart. In this study, we found that fibroblast-specific PGC-1α KO induced cardiac remodeling especially fibrosis, and Angiotensin II (AngII) aggravated cardiac fibrosis, accompanied with a high level of oxidative stress response and inflammation.
Marjohn C. Niño, Yong-Gu Cho, Agronomy, 10, 960 (7), 2020
Bacterial blight is a common disease found in the rice-growing regions in the Korean peninsula. Identification of the gene network involved against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Korean race K2 in popular japonica cultivars is essential in underpinning the molecular mechanism of resistance. A microarray of two popular Korean japonica rice cultivars, a bacterial blight susceptible Dongjin and resistant Jinbaek, was performed to investigate the transcripts of inducible genes at 48 h post-inoculation. A total of 771 differentially expressed genes were identified in Jinbaek, whereas 298 were found in Dongjin. The resistance observed in Jinbaek is likely participated by genes with predicted functions in transmembrane perception, intracellular signal transduction, and transcription activity. Moreover, the remarkable involvement of numerous WRKY proteins signifies orchestration of defense signals via robust cellular reprogramming, which leads to resistance. To discover genes essential to bacterial blight resistance in Jinbaek, 13 highly expressed genes encoding different protein classes were cloned and overexpressed in rice. Although none of the overexpression plants exhibited resistance comparable to Jinbaek, four candidate genes, including one twin-arginine translocation pathway signal (LOC_Os01g45640.1), one cytochrome p450 (LOC_Os09g10340.1), and two uncharacterized expressed protein (LOC_Os08g26230.4, LOC_Os09g04310.1) conferred partial resistance. However, of these four genes, only p450s have been reported to play an important role in the synthesis of plant defense compounds. These findings revealed the complexity of key immune signaling conduits critical to mounting a full defense against Xanthomonas. oryzae pv. oryzae race K2 in japonica rice.
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