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Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software
This software was found at
354 locations
The software is used in
48 countries
Usage per year (up to 2020)
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123 related research fields
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About Ansys CFX

The software Ansys CFX was found in 354 unique locations in 48 countries where it was mentioned from 2006 until recentlyIt is a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package used to predict fluid flow and heat transfer. The software is suitable for a range of applications, including industrial product design, environmental and process engineering, pharmaceutical, aerospace and automotive engineering. It uses advanced numerical methods and algorithms to simulate the physical behavior of fluids, taking into account the properties of the materials involved in the system. For example, it can be used to optimise designs, investigate performance, and reduce emissions. It is used by scientists in various research fields such as Mechanical Engineering, Energy Engineering and Power Technology, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, and Modeling and Simulation. The software is also used in Engineering, Energy, Biomedical Engineering, Control and Optimization, Process Chemistry and Technology, Computer Science Applications, Bioengineering, Condensed Matter Physics, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes, General Medicine, General Engineering, Biotechnology, Chemical Engineering, Mechanics of Materials, General Physics and Astronomy, Biochemistry, General Materials Science, Nuclear Energy and Engineering, Instrumentation, Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine, Control and Systems Engineering, Biophysics, Applied Mathematics, and Aerospace Engineering.
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Research that uses Ansys CFX

Elahe Chero, Anahita ghafoorisadatieh, Hamidreza Zahabi, Mohammadamin Torabi, Keivan Bina, 2019
Abstract. Nowadays, settling tank's removal efficiency is one of the most crucial matter in all Water or Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTPs or WWTPs). The unit can affect a WWTP performance and improve effluent quality provided. In this paper, geometrical aspects of a settling tank were numerically analyzed via tracer curves, finite volume method and Ansys-cfx software in which, baffle depth and diameter of a settling tank were assessed. Firstly, a previous study was similarly remodeled to verify the simulation results. The impact of tank depth variation has been numerically assessed where the outcomes showed that deeper tank could raise discharge time or Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT). Thus, extensive discharge time may result in less polluted effluent degrading more solids. However, the tank should not be considered too deep regarding economic issues. Moreover, the differential effect of baffle height was analyzed and indicated that lower height is more useful to boost HRT. Investigation of tank diameter changes also revealed that wider diameters bring broader HRT.
Du Jianguo, Daniel Adu, Emmanuel Acheaw, Shakir Hafeez, Eric Ofosu Antw, Complexity, 2020, 1-10, 2020
Energy contributes significantly in almost all aspects of human life as well as economic activities and plays a crucial role in the infrastructural development of a county to alleviate poverty. Generating energy from a renewable source such as small hydropower through the application of pump operating as a turbine mode called Pump as Turbine is one of the best alternatives to provide clean and inexpensive energy. Using Pump as Turbine helps in generating reasonably priced hydroelectric power for communities in underdeveloped counties. This study investigates the effects of internal flow behaviour and performance of Pump as Turbine under different rotational speed and flow rate. The rotational speed is an essential physical parameter as it affects the Pump as Turbine operation. A model-specific speed centrifugal pump model with head 32 (m), flow rate of 12.5 (m3/h) and the rotational speed of 2900 rpm, has been selected for the study. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the k-ω turbulence model to solve three-dimensional (3D) equations. The pump mode experimental data were used to confirm the results for better analysis. The results predicted that vortex and turbulent kinetic energy increase per rotational speed increase. Also, at the higher rotational speed, very high recirculation of flow is detected at the blade suction chamber, although the pressure side has a smooth flow. This study provides beneficial information which will serve as a reference to help improve PAT performance along with selecting PAT for a small hydropower site. Future works will consider the impact of blade thickness and cavitation in Pump as Turbine.
Jiren Zhou, Miaomiao Zhao, Chuan Wang, Zhenjun Gao, Shock and Vibration, 2021, 1-9, 2021
A model of the pumping station lateral inflow forebay was established to explore the influence of different lateral bending angles of the pumping station lateral inflow. The lateral bending angles were set at 45° and 60°, and the two schemes were calculated separately. Analyzing the results of the numerical simulation showed that the flow patterns of the diversion passages of different schemes were good, but the advancing mainstream of the 1# inlet passage near the sidewall was seriously deviated after entering the forebay. Most of the water can flow smoothly into the inlet passage, while a small part of the water flowed into the sidewall and formed a backflow, resulting in a large-scale backflow zone near the left sidewall of the forebay. Moreover, the flow in the backflow zone was turbulent, which affected the water inlet conditions of the 1# water flow passage. Comparing the water inlet conditions of the water passage with the numerical simulation results of 45° and 60° bending angles showed that the larger the lateral bending angle of the forebay was, the worse the flow pattern of the water flow, and the more unfavorable the pump operation.
Tang Xin, Liu Zhili, Zhao Meng, Yang Haotian, Jiang Wei, Wang Yuchuan, Chen Diyi, Shock and Vibration, 2021, 1-11, 2021
To better reveal the mechanism of the rotor-stator interference between the impeller and the guide vane and the evolution process of the stall vortex under the part-load conditions, numerical simulation is carried out based on the DDES turbulence model, which can better capture vortex structure. And the pressure pulsation and the radial velocity distribution of the centrifugal pump are studied. The vortex structure and pressure fluctuation of pump internal flow field under part-load condition of Q = 0.4 Qdes are mainly analyzed. The analysis results show that the stall vortex is formed at the inlet of the impeller and evolves to the outlet of the impeller, the front cover to the rear cover according to the fluid flow direction, and then disappears. Besides, under the part-load condition, the vorticity of the impeller outlet is always obviously less than that of the impeller inlet as the flow rate increases. Due to the asymmetric action of the volute, the radial velocity distribution law of flow channel C1 is different from other flow channels at different blade heights. By analyzing the radial velocity, the phenomenon that the jet-wake flow impacts the guide vane with the rotation of the impeller is the main reason for the rotor-stator interference. And large radial velocity gradients appear at the front and rear cover plates, which will cause high energy loss and reduce pump efficiency. Besides, the conclusion can be drawn that the region with the strongest rotor-stator interference is the inlet region of the guide vane suction surface. It also occurs near the volute tongue but is lower due to the effect of the guide vane. This research may serve as a reference for the safe operation of centrifugal pumps under part-load conditions.
Zheqin Yu, Jianping Tan, Shuai Wang, 2020
Abstract Background: The splitter blade is an improved structure effective in traditional pumps. However, applying splitter blades to blood pumps is a complex optimization problem with multiple parameters and objectives, because structural parameters, blood circulation dynamics, and blood damage need to be considered simultaneously. This study aims to obtain the performance impact of the splitter blade and make it well used in blood pumps through CFD and neural networks.Results: This study combines CFD and neural networks. And hydraulic experiments and PIV technology were used. In the optimization study, the number of blades, axial length, and circumferential offset are optimization parameters, and hydraulic performance and hemolytic prediction index are optimization targets. The study analyzes the influence of each parameter on performance and completes the optimization of the parameters. In the results, the optimal parameters of the number of blades, axial length ratio, and circumferential offset are 2, 6 °, and 0.41, respectively. Under optimized parameters, hydraulic performance can be significantly improved. And the results of hemolysis prediction and micro PIV experiments reflect that there is no increase in the risk of hemolytic damage.Conclusion: This study provides a method and ideas for improving the structure of the blood pump. The established optimization method can be effectively applied to the design and research of blood pumps with complex, high precision, and multiple parameters and targets.
Wang Xiuli, Lin Bin, Li Yang, Zhang Yan, Zhu Rongsheng, Long Yun, Fu Qiang, Frontiers in Energy Research, 8, 2020
The two-way counter-rotation technology is mainly applied to the tidal power station. In this paper, the hydrodynamic optimization of the two-way counter-rotating axial-flow pump turbine is carried out. Under the premise of realizing the forward and reverse power generation and the forward and negative pumping basic function, it has important engineering significance and academic value for improving the pump turbine performance of various working conditions. The main contents are as follows: hydraulic design of “S”-shaped blade for the two-way counter-rotating axial-flow pump turbine is conducted, and the influence of the gap between different impeller stages on the performance is calculated and analyzed, and the variation law of head and efficiency of the pump turbine under different inter-stage clearances is obtained. And the influence of the inter-stage gap on the unit is summarized from the vorticity distribution and the axial section pressure cloud diagram analysis, and the range of the best inter-stage gap of the unit performance is determined.
Keqi Hu, Yuanqi Fang, Yao Zheng, Gaofeng Wang, Stéphane Moreau, Acoustics, 2, 524-538 (3), 2020
As an indirect noise source generated in the combustion chamber, entropy waves are widely prevalent in modern gas turbines and aero-engines. In the present work, the influence of entropy waves on the downstream flow field of a turbine guide vane is investigated. The work is mainly based on a well-known experimental configuration called LS89. Two different turbulence models are used in the simulations which are the standard k-ω model and the scale-adaptive simulation (SAS) model. In order to handle the potential transition issue, Menter’s ð-Reθ transition model is coupled with both models. The baseline cases are first simulated with the two different turbulence models without any incoming perturbation. Then one forced case with an entropy wave train set at the turbine inlet at a given frequency and amplitude is simulated. Results show that the downstream maximum Mach number is rising from 0.98 to 1.16, because the entropy waves increase the local temperature of the flow field; also, the torque of the vane varies as the entropy waves go through, the magnitude of the oscillation is 7% of the unforced case. For the wall (both suction and pressure side of the vane) heat transfer, the entropy waves make the maximum heat transfer coefficient nearly twice as the large at the leading edge, while the minimum heat transfer coefficient stays at a low level. As for the averaged normalized heat transfer coefficient, a maximum difference of 30% appears between the baseline case and the forced case. Besides, during the transmission process of entropy waves, the local pressure fluctuates with the wake vortex shedding. The oscillation magnitude of the pressure wave at the throat is found to be enhanced due to the inlet entropy wave by applying the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) method. Moreover, the transmission coefficient of the entropy waves, and the reflection and transmission coefficients of acoustic waves are calculated.
Pericles Panagiotou, Thomas Dimopoulos, Stylianos Dimitriou, Kyros Yakinthos, Aerospace, 8, 13 (1), 2021
The current study presents a low-fidelity, quasi-3D aerodynamic analysis method for Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) configurations. A tactical BWB UAV experimental prototype is used as a reference platform. The method utilizes 2D panel method analyses and theoretical aerodynamic calculations to rapidly compute lift and pitching moment coefficients. The philosophy and the underlying theoretical and semi-empirical equations of the proposed method are extensively described. Corrections related to control surfaces deflection and ground effect are also suggested, so that the BWB pitching stability and trimming calculations can be supported. The method is validated against low-fidelity 3D aerodynamic analysis methods and high-fidelity, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results for various BWB configurations. The validation procedures show that the proposed method is considerably more accurate than existing low-fidelity ones, can provide predictions for both lift and pitching moment coefficients and requires far less computational resources and time when compared to CFD modeling. Hence, it can serve as a valuable aerodynamics and stability analysis tool for BWB UAV configurations.
Yuqi Wang, Jinxing Li, Di Zhang, Yonghui Xie, Applied Sciences, 10, 2087 (6), 2020
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) is of great use in miniature power systems. It obtains the characteristics of high density and low viscosity, which makes it possible to build a compact structure for turbomachinery. For a turbine design, an important issue is to figure out the appropriate solidity of the rotor. The objective of this research is to present the aerodynamic performance and provide the design reference for SCO2 and air radial-inflow turbines considering different solidity structures. For the low solidity case of SCO2 turbine, new splitter structures are proposed to improve its performance. The automatic design and simulation process are established by batch modes in MATLAB. The numerical investigation is based on a 3D viscous compressible N-S equation and the actual fluid property of SCO2 and air. The distributions of flow parameters are first presented. Rotor blade load and aerodynamic force are then thoroughly analyzed and the aerodynamic performances of all cases are obtained. The SCO2 turbine has larger power capacity and higher efficiency while the performance of the air turbine is less affected by rotor solidity. For both SCO2 and air, small solidity can cause the unsatisfactory flow condition at the inlet and the shroud section of the rotor, while large solidity results in the aerodynamic loss at the trailing edge of rotor blade and the hub of rotor outlet. A suction side offset splitter can greatly improve the performance of the low solidity SCO2 turbine.
Qiaorui Si, Chunhao Shen, Xiaoke He, Hao Li, Kaile Huang, Jianping Yuan, Applied Sciences, 10, 3105 (9), 2020
The development of low-noise pumps is essential to design quiet fluid delivery systems. Due to the complicated internal flow, the flow-induced noise characteristics of high-speed centrifugal pumps have not been well understood. Taking engine cooling pumps as an example model, experimental measurements are performed in a semi-anechoic room and a CFD/CFA calculation method is proposed to study the fluid-borne noise and radiated noise characteristics. In the speed range of 5000–6750 r/min, both the pump head and the dimensionless radiated noise characteristics conform to similar laws, and the highest efficiency point pump presents the lowest noise level. Consistent with the experimental results, the predicted radiated noise of the model pump presents dipole characteristics at the required flow rate condition. Moreover, the spectrum of fluid borne noise at pump outlet shows broadband characteristics but with obvious discrete peaks, which are not only related to the fluid pressure pulsation characteristics (6f0 and the multiple) at the low-frequency region, but also to the frequency of the structural mode (3000–6000 Hz region). Rotor-stator interaction of the pump flow field between the impeller and volute is the main reason of flow-induced noise; unstable flow also contributes to the broadband components in the noise spectrum.
Bin Sun, Quan Liu, Hongyuan Fang, Chao Zhang, Yuanbo Lu, Shun Zhu, Applied Sciences, 10, 3899 (11), 2020
The mixing, migration, and degradation of pollutants in sewers are the main causes for pipeline corrosion and the increased pollution scope. The clarification of the turbulent mixing characteristics in pipelines is critical for finding the source of pollution in a timely fashion and inspecting pipelines’ damaged locations. In this paper, numerical simulations and experiments were conducted to investigate the turbulent mixing characteristics in pipelines by studying a T-junction system, of which four variables (main pipe diameter φ, cross-flow flux Q, mixing ratio δ, the incident angle of T-junctions θ) were considered. The coefficient of variation (COV) of the salt solution was selected as the evaluation index and effective mixing length (LEML) was defined for quantitative analysis. The numerical results were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The results reveal that the values of LEML rise as Q or φ increase and decrease with the increase of δ, where the influence of φ is much greater than Q and δ, and there is no obvious regularity between LEML and θ. By dimensional analysis and multivariate nonlinear regression analysis, a dimensionless relationship equation in harmony with the dimensional analysis was fitted, and a simplified equation with the average error of 4.01% was obtained on the basis of correlation analysis.
Jianping Yuan, Yang Chen, Longyan Wang, Yanxia Fu, Yunkai Zhou, Jian Xu, Rong Lu, Applied Sciences, 10, 5998 (17), 2020
When a pump-jet propeller rotates at high speeds, a tip vortex is usually generated in the tip clearance region. This vortex interacts with the main channel fluid flow leading to the main energy loss of the rotor system. Moreover, operating at a high rotational speed can cause cavitation near the blades which may jeopardize the propulsion efficiency and induce noise. In order to effectively improve the propulsion efficiency of the pump-jet propeller, it is mandatory to research more about the energy loss mechanism in the tip clearance area. Due to the complex turbulence characteristics of the blade tip vortex, the widely used Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) method may not be able to accurately predict the multi-scale turbulent flow in the tip clearance. In this paper, an unsteady numerical simulation was conducted on the three-dimensional full flow field of a pump-jet propeller based on the DES (detached-eddy-simulation) turbulence model and the Z-G-B (Zwart–Gerber–Belamri) cavitation model. The simulation yielded the vortex shape and dynamic characteristics of the vortex core and the surrounding flow field in the tip clearance area. After cavitation occurred, the influence of cavitation bubbles on tip vortices was also studied. The results revealed two kinds of vortices in the tip clearance area, namely tip leakage vortex (TLV) and tip separation vortex (TSV). Slight cavitation at J = 1.02 led to low-frequency and high-frequency pulsation in the TLV vortex core. This occurrence of cavitation promotes the expansion and contraction of the tip vortex. Further, when the advance ratio changes into J = 0.73, a third type of vortex located between TLV and TSV appeared at the trailing edge which runs through the entire rotational cycle. This study has presented the dynamic characteristics of tip vortex including the relationship between cavitation bubbles and TLV inside the pump-jet propeller, which may provide a reference for the optimal design of future pump-jet propellers.
Yuan Tao, Xianjun Yu, Baojie Liu, Applied Sciences, 10, 8802 (24), 2020
Tandem blade technology has been developed for years due to its capacity to bear higher aerodynamics than conventional configurations. Even so, there is still the tough problem of how to design tandem blades effectively and further improve blade performance. This paper tries to further understand the flow characteristics of tandem blades in order to present a new method of designing them under subsonic inflow conditions. Firstly, efforts were made to reveal the aerodynamic interaction between the forward blade (FB) and the aft blade (AB). Secondly, considering this aerodynamic interaction, the design principles and the camber line modification method were put forward, with which typical controlled diffusion airfoil (CD airfoil) isentropic Mach number distributions can be achieved for both FB and AB. Lastly, the optimizations were conducted on a 2D tandem blade and a transonic compressor with a tandem blade, respectively. The computation fluid dynamic (CFD) results show that the optimized tandem blade achieves a significant improvement for both 2D blade performance and transonic compressor characteristics at low speeds.
Senthil Raman, Heuy Kim, Computation, 6, 54 (4), 2018
A centrifugal compressor working with supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) has several advantages over other supercritical and conventional compressors. S-CO 2 is as dense as the liquid CO 2 and becomes difficult to compress. Thus, during the operation, the S-CO 2 centrifugal compressor requires lesser compression work than the gaseous CO 2 . The performance of S-CO 2 compressors is highly varying with tip clearance and vanes in the diffuser. To improve the performance of the S-CO 2 centrifugal compressor, knowledge about the influence of individual components on the performance characteristics is necessary. This present study considers an S-CO 2 compressor designed with traditional engineering design tools based on ideal gas behaviour and tested by SANDIA national laboratory. Three-dimensional, steady, viscous flow through the S-CO 2 compressor was analysed with computational fluid dynamics solver based on the finite volume method. Navier-Stokes equations are solved with K- ω (SST) turbulence model at operating conditions in the supercritical regime. Performance of the impeller, the main component of the centrifugal compressor is compared with the impeller with vaneless diffuser and vaned diffuser configurations. The flow characteristics of the shrouded impeller are also studied to analyse the tip-leakage effect.
Shuaihui Sun, Gursharanjit Singh, Ahmed Kovacevic, Christoph Bruecker, Designs, 4, 3 (1), 2020
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can help in understanding the nature of leakage flow phenomena inside the rotary positive displacement machines (PDMs). However, due to the lack of experimental results, the analysis of leakage flows in rotary PDMs by CFD has not yet been fully validated. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) tests with a microscopic lens and phase-lock were conducted to obtain the velocity field around the tip gap in an optical Roots blower. The three-dimensional unsteady CFD model of the Roots blower with the dynamic grids generated by Screw Compressor Rotor Grid Generation (SCORG) was established to predict the gap flow under the same operating conditions. The images obtained by the PIV tests were analyzed and some factors which compromise the quality of test results in the gap flow were identified, such as reflections and transparency of the window. The flow fields obtained by CFD have the same flow pattern and velocity magnitude as the experimental results in the majority of observed regions but overestimate the leakage flow velocity. The CFD results show a vortex induced by the leakage flow in the downstream region of the gap. The flow losses in the tip gap mainly happen at the entrance upstream of the gap. Finally, some suggestions for future work are discussed.
Ran Tao, Xiaoran Zhao, Zhengwei Wang, Entropy, 21, 271 (3), 2019
In fluid machineries, the flow energy dissipates by transforming into internal energy which performs as the temperature changes. The flow-induced noise is another form that flow energy turns into. These energy dissipations are related to the local flow regime but this is not quantitatively clear. In turbomachineries, the flow regime becomes pulsating and much more complex due to rotor-stator interaction. To quantitatively understand the energy dissipations during rotor-stator interaction, the centrifugal air pump with a vaned diffuser is studied based on total energy modeling, turbulence modeling and acoustic analogy method. The numerical method is verified based on experimental data and applied to further simulation and analysis. The diffuser blade leading-edge site is under the influence of impeller trailing-edge wake. The diffuser channel flow is found periodically fluctuating with separations from the blade convex side. Stall vortex is found on the diffuser blade trailing-edge near outlet. High energy loss coefficient sites are found in the undesirable flow regions above. Flow-induced noise is also high in these sites except in the stall vortex. Frequency analyses show that the impeller blade frequency dominates in the diffuser channel flow except in the outlet stall vortexes. These stall vortices keep their own stall frequency which is about 1/5 impeller frequency with high energy loss coefficient but low noise level. Results comparatively prove the energy dissipation mechanism in the centrifugal air pump under rotor-stator interaction. Results also provide the quantitative basis for turbomachinery’s loss reduction design.
Rongchao Zhao, Weihua Li, Weilin Zhuge, Yangjun Zhang, Entropy, 21, 985 (10), 2019
The developments of two-stage turbocharging and turbocompounding promote the application of the two-stage turbine system in internal combustion engines. Since the turbine suffers from the pulsating exhaust, the performance deteriorates significantly from steady conditions. In the paper, the pulsating flow losses in the two-stage turbine are analyzed and a control method is proposed to improve the turbine performance. ANSYS CFX, which is a commercial software for computational fluid dynamic, is applied to resolve the three-dimensional unsteady flow problem. The accuracy of the simulation method is verified by the experimental data from each turbine. Firstly, the impacts of pulse amplitudes on transient loss of each component of the two-stage turbine are studied. Then flow field analysis is carried out to understand details of the unsteady flows. It is found that the variation of incidence angle at the low-pressure turbine (LPT) rotor tip is significantly larger than that at rotor hub, which causes severe flow loss near leading edge. As a result, the LPT performance drops down significantly. To improve the LPT performance, the blade shape at tip is modified. The aerodynamic performances of turbines with three different shapes under high- and low-load pulsating flow conditions are evaluated. It is found that increased inlet blade angle and medium thickness achieves good aerodynamic performance. The rotor averaged efficiency is improved by 2.27% under high-load pulsating condition.
Jong Hwi Lee, Young Woo Son, Se-Myong Chang, Entropy, 22, 358 (3), 2020
This research focused on the correlations associated with the physics of natural convection in circular fin-tube models. The limiting conditions are defined by two conditions. The lower limit ( D o / D → 1, s/D = finite value) corresponds to a horizontal circular tube, while the upper limit ( D o / D → ∞, s/D << 1) corresponds to vertical flat plates. In this paper, we proposed a corrected correlation based on empirical result. The circular fin-tube heat exchanger was divided into the A and B types, the categorizing criteria being D o / D = 1.2 , where D and D o refer to the diameter of the circular tube and the diameter of the circular fin, respectively. Moreover, with the computational fluid dynamics technique used to investigate the limiting conditions, the parametric range was extended substantially in this research for type B, namely 1.2 < D o / D ≤ 10. The complex correlation was also simplified to the form Nu L = C Ra s n , where C and n are the functions of the diameter ratio D o / D .
Baofeng Tu, Xinyu Zhang, Jun Hu, Entropy, 22, 1416 (12), 2020
In order to investigate the influence of steam ingestion on the aerodynamic stability of a two-stage low-speed axial-flow compressor, multiphase flow numerical simulation and experiment were carried out. The total pressure ratio and stall margin of the compressor was decreased under steam ingestion. When the compressor worked at 40% and 53% of the nominal speed, the stall margin decreased, respectively, by 1.5% and 6.3%. The ingested steam reduced the inlet Mach number and increased the thickness of the boundary layer on the suction surface of the blade. The low-speed region around the trailing edge of the blade was increased, and the flow separation region of the boundary layer on the suction surface of the blade was expanded; thus, the compressor was more likely to enter the stall state. The higher the rotational speed, the more significant the negative influence of steam ingestion on the compressor stall margin. The entropy and temperature of air were increased by steam. The heat transfer between steam and air was continuous in compressor passages. The entropy of the air in the later stage was higher than that in the first stage; consequently, the flow loss in the second stage was more serious. Under the combined action of steam ingestion and counter-rotating bulk swirl distortion, the compressor stability margin loss was more obvious. When the rotor speed was 40% and 53% of the nominal speed, the stall margin decreased by 6.3% and 12.64%, respectively.
Mireille B. Tadie Fogaing, Arman Hemmati, Carlos F. Lange, Brian A. Fleck, Energies, 12, 3290 (17), 2019
The performance of five conventional turbulence models, commonly used in the wind industry, are examined in predicting the complex wake of an infinite span thin normal flat plate with large pressure gradients at Reynolds number of 1200. This body represents a large array of Photovoltaics modules, where two edges of the plate dominate the flow. This study provided a benchmark for capabilities of conventional turbulence models that are commonly used for wind forecasting in the wind energy industry. The results obtained from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) k - ε , Reynolds Normalization Group (RNG) k - ε , RANS k - ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) and Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) were compared with existing Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). The mean flow features and unsteady wake characteristics were used as testing criteria amongst these models. All turbulence models over-predicted the mean recirculation length and under-predicted the mean drag coefficient. The major differences between numerical results in predicting the mean recirculation length, mean drag and velocity gradients, leading to deficits in turbulence kinetic energy production and diffusion, hint at major difficulties in modeling velocity gradients and thus turbulence energy transport terms, by traditional turbulence models. Unsteadiness of flow physics and nature of eddy viscosity approximations are potential reasons. This hints at the deficiencies of these models to predict complex flows with large pressure gradients, which are commonly observed in wind and solar farms. The under-prediction of wind loads on PV modules and over-estimation of the recirculation length behind them significantly affects the efficiency and operational feasibility of solar energy systems.
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